Exercise 1

Wen is fascinated with how the Internet has impacted all aspects of modern commerce. This fascination has resulted in near completion of a Master's degree in Computer Science with a concentration in network applications from National Tsing Hua University, one of Taiwan's premier institutes of higher learning. Upon completion of this degree, he will immediately pursue a Ph.D. in the same field, hopefully at UCLA.


Exercise 2


Since childhood, May has dreamed of a world free of pollution and, as a result, has become an environmentally conscious individual. The strong research fundamentals acquired during her undergraduate years at National Cheng Chi University have prepared her for advanced study in Public Administration. Her graduate school research will hopefully center on how the government can implement environmentally friendly practices. Furthermore, she plans to identify those governmental measures that are vital to Taiwan's industrial sector.  Moreover, she intends to actively participate in developing environmental protection laws for Taiwan.


Exercise 3


Immersing himself in customer service-related issues, Ray has studied Marketing since high school.  His particular interests are the increasing number of customer-oriented administrative database systems and customer/supplier relations.  Thus, he wishes to further his knowledge through graduate studies on interactive marketing research, which is a timely topic for the recently emerging electronic communications media in Taiwan.


Exercise 4


Sue has long been intrigued by creative, strategic decision making.  Careful selection of which methods to adopt and actions to enforce  in order to ensure that the best decision is made is what will make her a successful business manager. If admitted to the Management research program at MIT, she intends to concentrate on total systems intervention, including related issues of organizational processes, design, and culture. This explains why MIT was her first choice for doctoral studies. In addition to a distinguished program in Business Administration, MIT's renowned research in contemporary management strategies such as business process re-engineering, quality management, and total systems intervention is widely recognized. Sue's strong academic performance and solid background in Business Management have prepared her to meet the rigorous challenges of MIT's program.


Exercise 5

With Taiwan’s widely anticipated entry into the World Trade Organization, its economy will undoubtedly witness unprecedented growth and greater access to global markets. Moreover, China 's population of over 1 billion people may provide a major market for Taiwanese products in the near future, thus offering endless possibilities for market expansion. These exciting times in global economics explain why John has decided to study for a Ph.D. in Management as a logical extension to eventually commence a career in related research.


Exercise 6

Taiwan heavily depends on international trade owing to its limited natural resources and domestic supply as well as demand in either the capital or commodity market. To fulfill its aspirations of becoming the financial center of the Asian Pacific region, Taiwan is facing deregulation and globalization.  Taiwan is becoming more sensitive to fluctuating international markets, thus forging closer relations with other countries. Currently, Taiwan’s most urgent need is for local economists to develop expert and comparative abilities, which match the rapid changes in regulation and innovation, such as those in the United States.  Therefore, Susan has decided to pursue a graduate degree in International Finance.


Exercise 7

Comparing urban and rural areas, Taiwan has an unequal distribution of public health resources.  In particular, inadequate teaching faculties and libraries in these remote areas result in fewer high school graduates as well as an inferior standard of medical care. Inadequate health care available in these areas is further evidenced in the prevalence of severe health problems such as alcoholism and various infectious diseases. Equitable health care is essential for a productive and secure society. This explains why Tom has decided to devote himself to effectively addressing public health issues in Taiwan following an advanced degree at the Institute of Public Health at Harvard University.


Exercise 8

Taiwan's economy has flourished in recent decades, as evidenced by rapid industrial expansion and market deregulation. Although the island escaped the Asian economic turmoil of the late 1990s relatively unscathed, a surging gross domestic product as well as an increasing emphasis on environmental issues has strained entrepreneurial development. Growing up in such an economically dynamic environment has motivated Nancy's interest in researching the way in which how domestic companies can compete with multinational corporations and how the Taiwan government can adjust financial market strategies to enhance local competitiveness. Moreover, as Taiwan faces the reconstruction of its financial markets, identifying appropriate deregulations is essential.  Therefore, Nancy has decided to complete a Masters degree in International Finance.


Exercise 9

After passing a highly competitive nationwide entrance examination, Bill was admitted to the Commerce Department at National Cheng Kung University in 1999 where he majored in Finance. Several academic awards, an overall academic ranking of first out of a class of 300 and a cumulative GPA of 3.95/4.0 attest to his strong analytical skills and research fundamentals that he developed in order to conduct finance-related research. Upon graduation, he refused several employment offers in the financial sector to continue studies in commerce.  This solid undergraduate training has equipped him for the rigorous demands of advanced study in this field. 


Exercise 10

A solid academic background in Industrial Engineering at one of Taiwan's premier universities, National Chiao Tung University, provided Ellen with the fundamental skills required for advanced research. Courses of  particular interest during university were Manufacturing Process, Manufacturing Engineering, Production Planning and Control, as well as Industrial Organization and Management. Coursework during her junior and senior years in these areas heavily emphasized practical applications, often providing her with many opportunities to come into contact with actual enterprises.


Exercise 11

John graduated from the Industrial Engineering Department at Feng Chia University in 1999. The departmental curricula provided him with a theoretical and practical understanding of industrial occupations, especially those in the electronics, telecommunications and semiconductor industries. Moreover, courses such as Quality Control and Factory Automation were particularly helpful in fostering his ability to solve problems logically.


In addition, John served as a research assistant in a National Science Council sponsored project on factory automation in Taiwan.  Theoretical knowledge and practical laboratory experiences fostered his interest in this field of study even though limited resources and facilities prevented him from an in depth investigation. He also served as a teaching assistant for a course in quality management, which gave him a further glimpse into the dynamic nature of industry-related research.


Exercise 12

During graduate school, Becky participated in several National Science Council research projects related to deregulation of the banking industry in Taiwan and its financial impact.  Fully engaging in each stage of the projects, from original concept formation and experimental process design to experimental implementation, not only improved her research skills but also deepened her knowledge of related fields. She also attended many domestic and international science conferences. These valuable experiences were very helpful when she wrote her master’s thesis, a work having received considerable praise.


Exercise 13

As an undergraduate student, John participated in technology management-related research, with a particular emphasis on how modern management practices are related.  Those findings culminated in publication of a research paper. To enhance his research abilities, he attended several international conferences and audited management courses at the Institute of Technology Management at National Taiwan University.


Exercise 14

 Julie's studies at the Institute of Food Research at National Taiwan Normal University provided her not only with solid background knowledge of diet and nutrition, but also with the desire to become an academic researcher in this exciting field. While working on her bachelor’s degree, she joined the Food Safety Laboratory to understand how food poisoning affects humans.  This experience reinforced her dedication to laboratory work and highlighted the importance of developing pertinent research questions and experimental designs that enable data analysis.


Exercise 15

Larry's current research project involves designing a questionnaire, interviewing study participants and analyzing data. These experiences offer a glimpse into the dynamic nature of educational research and the exciting challenges of a research career. Although his aspiration of becoming a distinguished researcher will be an arduous journey, he is ready to immerse  himself in academia. Moreover, Larry believes that he has the personal intellect and determination to meet its challenges.


Exercise 16

As a physical therapist at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for the past five years, Cathy finds her work with physically challenged individuals as personally fulfilling since she can facilitate their improvement through therapy.  In addition to providing therapeutic intervention to children, Cathy has gained advanced professional knowledge and, thus, believes that graduate study would further improve upon it. Moreover, she believes that a clinical practitioner who is undertaking research to examine therapeutic changes requires the skills to design and conduct a study.



Exercise 17

During university, Jerry participated in a social service organization that held summer youth camps.   After several years of participation, he gradually assumed a leading role in planning the program of these youth camps. While providing sports, entertainment, and art-related activities, these camps equip students with communicative skills, provide exposure to peers on an equal footing and broaden their horizons. 

Executing such a comprehensive camp schedule requires close collaboration among team members to ensure success. As a leader, Jerry had to initiate innovative ways of keeping volunteers involved, such as planning special dinners to coincide with planning sessions, using a sense of humor to retain everyone's interest, making related tasks enjoyable and, above all, providing an example of hard work for others to follow.  This unique leadership opportunity was one of the most rewarding experiences of his undergraduate years.


Exercise 18

The many extracurricular activities that Betty participated in during university gave her the necessary balance of developing academic and social skills simultaneously. She often served as a representative or spokesperson of campus organizations, subsequently making many new friends and building her self-confidence. In addition to a solid academic background, a good manager should have strong communicative, organizational and management skills. Also, the fact that she is bilingual allowed her to easily adjust to different cultures and understand how different market niches fit in the larger global picture.


Exercise 19

Realizing that the medical profession should actively educate communities and society to avoid the spread of social diseases, Tom worked with other classmates in organizing an AIDS awareness campaign on the university campus to make students more aware of the devastating effects of this disease and preventive measures. Implementing this project brought him into contact with various entities such as school administrators and shop owners, sharpening his negotiation skills and showing him the discrepancy between theory and practice. This diverse education strengthened and broadened his solid knowledge base, and further enhanced his sensitivity towards various medical issues.


Exercise 20

   Serving as the public relations chairperson of a fundraising campaign for global hunger was a turning point in Sally's decision to pursue a career in marketing.  This challenging work broadened her horizons by allowing her to coordinate a large scale marketing and promotion project for a good cause. While increasing her interest in the field of communications, this experience also made her confident of her ability to achieve career goals by applying knowledge skills in a systematic manner. Taiwan lacks individuals with both hands on experience and sufficient  knowledge skills to market products in an integrated and efficient manner. This need has inspired Sally to pursue an advanced degree in Marketing Management in the United States.


Exercise 21

Patrick's academic performance during university is a notable example of his diligence. Despite his undistinguished academic work during the first two years of university, he was determined to raise his grade point average beginning with the first semester of his senior year.   However, he did not flinch from taking rigorous courses such as Finance, Accounting and Economics. Moreover, he received final course grades of 80 or higher during his last two years of university. In addition to coursework, his personal actions reflect his desire to be a high achiever.


Exercise 22

Ann's superiors have often commented on her ingenuity in approaching complex situations. While some feel that this is inherited, creativity can be nurtured through training. For instance, she is in tune with popular trends and often distinguishes between a passing marketing fad and an emerging trend. By remaining abreast of consumer behavior for a target group, Ann can often pinpoint the untapped market demand of a certain group.


Exercise 23

Jim's colleagues and superiors can attest to his responsible and trustworthy character. When assigned a task, he quickly generates a schedule, drafts the details and closely monitors the schedule until completion. He strongly believes that carefully planned timing is essential to successfully coordinating work tasks and achieving target goals. All tasks are closely related to each other so that any delay would incur a loss of timing or capital. While unforeseen problems may arise and cause a delay, Jim must ensure that such problems can be efficiently resolved to prevent further delay. He will apply this same responsible attitude towards graduate study and any research effort that he belongs to. He is confident that he can positively contribute to collaborative efforts by his classmates in graduate school.


Exercise 24

Tammy is friendly and communicative. While in university, she participated in the student government association in her department. During that period, she had many opportunities to interact with individuals from diverse backgrounds and could easily accommodate herself within a group. In both of her jobs, she had to frequently communicate with superiors, clients, agents, speakers, scholars and experts. Communication skills were nurtured, allowing her to assess different situations rationally. Graduate school will provide Tammy with many opportunities to collaborate and interact with classmates and professors, even occasionally meeting with entrepreneurs. She feels highly competent in such situations.


Exercise 25

After completing the masters degree program in strategic management from the University of Florida, Richard will return to Taiwan to make a more significant contribution than he would be able to do without further academic training.  He plans to work in a multinational corporation or research institute. Marketing strategy, research methodology and logical thinking - all of these skills nurtured in the masters program - will enable him to effectively respond to the latest technological advances in the workplace. His exposure to case studies as well as statistical and theoretical analysis in the masters program will make him more receptive to novel concepts. Such diverse work experiences, combined with a masters degree, will hopefully place him in line for a managerial position in just a few years.


Exercise 26

Following successful completion of MIT’s academic requirements, Jill plans to work for about three to five years as a marketing strategist, preferably analyzing potential markets to enhance export growth. This work will hopefully enable her to more thoroughly understand emerging markets in Taiwan and to establish an extensive personal network to facilitate ongoing research. Beyond that initial five years, she hopes to contribute to her country through researching new marketing theories and, perhaps, through helping the government construct sounder strategic policies. Jill also plans to teach marketing theory so that more people can contribute to Taiwan's competitiveness in global markets.


Exercise 27

After successfully completing a master’s degree from UCLA, Bill plans to continue with his studies until he has eventually earned a doctorate degree in social work.  Doing so would allow him to be in a better position to promote the quality of social work in Taiwan.  He is especially interested in child care and family law.


Exercise 28

Upon completion of her graduate degree, Mary hopes to return to Taiwan and seek a teaching position in a junior college or university.  By acquiring advanced knowledge and specialized skills that New York University offers, she will be better equipped and confident to take on such a position. As well, her experiences gained through the graduate program at New York University will also benefit the development of information systems in Taiwan, which has recently began to focus on improving and revising software processes.



Exercise 29

To achieve his career aspirations, Richard intends to enhance his education through a graduate degree program at an American university. From conversations with classmates, as well as numerous professors and industry figures, he has concluded that graduate study in the United States would be the most effective means to achieve the training that he will need as a leader in the organization that he is currently working in. Admissions to the MA degree program in Internet Marketing at the University of Oregon will foster the skills Richard needs to fully realize his aspiration of becoming an information specialist in the marketing field. Graduate study is the logical next step to fully realizing his career potential. The solid graduate curricula program at the University of Oregon will build upon and refine the fundamental skills that he gained during undergraduate study.


Exercise 30

Mary began searching for a graduate school in which she can achieve her career goals.  Via the Internet, periodicals and magazines in her university library, she discovered that the accounting program at Indiana University, a graduate program that has consistently ranked high in national surveys, is the one she was looking for.  What attracted her the most was the highly qualified and experienced faculty with frequent publications in prestigious journals, seemingly unlimited academic resources, as well as its distinctive and unique tradition.  Mary believes that logical thinking is important to professionalism in accounting and Indiana University's program in this area would provide me with the knowledge required to achieve her ambitions.   In addition, the weather and geographical conditions are pleasing to her.


Exercise 31

To achieve the above aspirations, applying to the prestigious  Department of Chemical Engineering is the logical choice for Larry. The diverse and professional curricula is what attracts him the most to the University of Washington. He is particularly drawn to the university's programs that focus on equipping its graduates with the technical competence and flexibility necessary to effectively respond to challenges within the chemical engineering profession. Larry feels that he has the talent, insight, intelligence, creativity, and potential to contribute to the rich pool of talented individuals at the University of Washington.  With a solid background in Chemistry along with his strong interests in the field, he is also confident that he can significantly contribute to any research team that he belongs to.


Exercise 32

Graduate study in the United States would equip Melody with the necessary skills to thrive in the workplace.  Taiwan's economy has flourished since 1970, as evidenced by rapid industrial expansion and market deregulation. While the island passed through the Asian economic turmoil of the late 1990s relatively unscathed, its revenues generated from information products and its averaged stock trading volume rank third and fifth worldwide, respectively.  Growing up in such an economically vibrant environment has motivated Melody's interest to more fully understand how domestic companies compete with  multinational corporations and how our government can adjust financial markets  to enhance local competitiveness. Her review of numerous journal articles has led her to understand the dominant role that the United States plays in developing related theories and applications.


Exercise 33

As chairman of the Finance Department at National Tsing Hua University, Professor Chang had the opportunity to closely observe Mr. Johnny Li when he enrolled in her course in Global Economics. In addition to his exemplary academic performance, Mr. Li also served as the social chairman of the department’s student association.


Exercise 34

As chairman of the Technical Management program at Soochow University and a frequent reader of management reports, Professor Su must often point out errors in the report contents of undergraduate work and their overall quality. At the beginning of the semester, she often criticized the work of the team that Mr. Jerry Chang belonged to in her offered course of Total Quality Management. However, his team gradually progressed in its preparation and overall quality of work.   In doing so, they provided valuable insight into the way in which total quality management is increasingly adopted in Taiwan's semiconductor industry, as documented in a report they wrote to fulfill the course requirements.  Mr. Chang played an instrumental role in this team, not only in orally presenting group findings but also in assigning work to team members.


Exercise 35

Professor Yu hopes that this recommendation letter aptly conveys his confidence in Miss Mary Li's ability to not only meet the academic requirements but excel in UCLA's master’s degree program in Strategic Management. In addition to observing her academic performance while enrolled in his Advanced Accounting course during her junior year of university, Professor Yu also observed her work performance in his accounting lab over the past six months.


Exercise 36

      Enrolled in Professor Wei's courses of Introduction to Art and Art Theory, Sherry Lu enthusiastically contributed to the class, subsequently inspiring other students to participate more actively. In addition, her excellent academic performance exceeded the professor's expectations from many years of teaching.


Exercise 37

John Wang often served as a team leader in Professor Li's research group, frequently engaging other team members in discussion and assigning tasks. Professor Li largely attributes the team's excellent performance to John's persistent direction. Importantly, he appears to have learned the merit of carefully listening to others opinions, even when his views are in contrast to theirs.


Professor Li can not emphasize enough her confidence in Mr. Wang's ability and determination to successfully complete his graduate studies. In addition to his academic potential, a strong personality and effective communication skills will prove invaluable for the challenges of graduate study. The admissions committee should not hesitate to contact Professor Li if she can provide further insight into this highly qualified candidate.


Exercise 38

Susan's diligent attitude towards studying never ceased to amaze Professor Chang. For instance, whenever encountering a bottleneck in her research progress, Susan always delved into reading and investigating the source of the problem while consulting with Professor Lin on how to resolve the problem at hand. On her own initiative, Susan continues to maintain contact with several researchers in the field, discussing relevant issues relating to their clinical or research experiences. In addition, her critical thinking skills are remarkable, as evidenced by her ability to synthesize pertinent reading materials, identify the limitations of previous literature and then state the logical next step in research from a unique perspective. Moreover, her analytical skills are exemplary. Although unfamiliar with the research topic at the outset, she analyzed the most pertinent information within her field of interest and then identified the research questions and hypothesis.


Her creativity and cooperative nature will be a great asset to any future research effort that she belongs to. The opportunity to pursue advanced study in MIT's graduate program will allow her to undertake innovative research in chemical engineering. Professor Lin therefore has no hesitations in highly recommending this candidate for admissions into MIT's graduate program.


Exercise 39
Betty constantly read upon related theory and discussed her observations with classmates. During weekly group meetings that involved journal discussions and case reports, she actively participated through her carefully thought out questions and responses to other participants' views.


In addition to her strong academic performance, Professor Smith was also impressed with her optimism. For instance, not only did she seek Professor Smith on Finance-related matters, she also sought out experts in the field to learn of their experiences. Such enthusiasm displays her determination to purse a career in Finance.  Professor Smith holds no reservations in recommending this highly qualified candidate for admissions to University of Michigan's graduate school.


Exercise 40

Tom has been a research assistant at the research and development department for five years. He is responsible for performing various experimental procedures and analyzing those results. His diligence in collecting and organizing materials in the department has played an important role in the company's efforts to develop new computers. He has the unique ability to identify exactly what he lacks for a particular research objective. He also quickly understands the limitations of conventional research in a particular area. Moreover, he has enthusiastically undertook experiments, attempting to solve problems from different angles. Remaining confident despite occasional setbacks, Mr. Su remained perseverant during experimental work, ultimately resulting in the establishment of a new process.



Furthermore, Tom has the keen ability to effectively address problems, as evidenced by his exemplary presentation skills and organizational skills during weekly meetings. His presentations were professionally delivered and well prepared.


    With his vast laboratory experience, insight, and positive attitude towards eliminating ambiguity in mental health programs, I am highly confident of Tom's ability to meet the rigorous requirements of Harvard University's renowned program in computer science.


Exercise 41

Many enterprises use Intranets to accelerate commercial activities. However, conventional network management systems are too expensive and complicated to be implemented in a typical enterprise’s Intranet. For instance, a network management system that costs more than 300,000 US Dollars to implement and requires additional machinery to operate makes upgrading hardware and software impossible.



Exercise 42

An increasing number of distance learning courses are available on the Internet.  However, such courses lack feasible strategies to assess student performance. This lack of reliable assessment methods inhibits the effectiveness of distance learning.


Exercise 43

An increasing number of mathematics courses are available on the Web.

However, conventional editors, using plain text as the user interface, cause difficulty in editing complex mathematical equations. For example, users of conventional editors spend excessive time in trying to express equations that include more than ten mathematical symbols.



Exercise 44

Based on the above, Tom wants to develop an efficient evaluation model that can select brands of buses that run on natural gas.  The proposed model can be used to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of all viable bus systems, as well as provide government with a valuable reference for selecting such systems.


Exercise 45

Based on the above, Susan wants to design a GIS-based architecture that supports a service that automatically reports to handheld mobile devices. The proposed architecture can automatically page PDA users through a wireless network when desired local information becomes available.  Additionally, the proposed architecture allows PDA users to access information that is filtered according to geographic position.


Exercise 46

Based on the above, John wants to develop a networked peer assessment system capable of supporting instruction and learning to analyze the effectiveness of students' learning in higher education.  The proposed system can identify a significant relationship between the students' attitudes and performance. The system can also obtain appropriate reliability and validity coefficients for networked peer assessment, demonstrating the feasibility of such assessment as an alternative strategy for distance learning.



Exercise 47

Although process quality and delivery time have been increasingly emphasized by industry, conventional process capability indices (PCIs) can neither objectively assess quality and delivery time nor identify the relationship between PCIs and yield rate. Consequently, the lack of an effective performance index and an objective procedure leads to inefficiency and a high overhead cost. Furthermore, firms that perform poorly in terms of quality and delivery will lose their market competitiveness. Therefore, an efficient hypothesis testing procedure for PCIS must be developed, capable of assessing operational cycle time (OCT) and delivery time (DT) for VLSI.


Exercise 48

Despite the increasingly everyday use of geographical-based information, the passive mode of accessing information fails to transmit geographic-based information to PDA users effectively. Although perhaps unaware at the time, PDA users can benefit from such information, such as in cases of emergency. The inability of PDA users to receive updated information in a timely manner will severely limit the range of uses of PDAs. Such a limitation may discourage PDA use. Therefore, a GIS-based architecture that supports more interesting and useful functions than are supported by conventional architecture, must be developed.


Exercise 49

Taiwan’s global competitiveness ranking in the IMD World Competitiveness Scoreboard is falling. Accordingly, the IMD Competitiveness Simulations neglect interactions among related factors. Use of the IMD Competitiveness Simulations can cause policy makers to make an inaccurate decision. Therefore, a novel competitiveness model must be developed, capable of integrating a global optimization algorithm into the IMD World Competitiveness Model.



Exercise 50

A face model can be developed to formulate efficiently the 3D image of an individual's from three 2D images. Three 2D images can be obtained simultaneously using three standard cameras. The images can then be transferred to a personal computer. Additionally, the proposed model can be used to formulate digitally the 3D face. As anticipated, the proposed model can reduce the time required to construct a 3D face by 10%, by optimizing the 3D model, rather than manually retrieving 2D images. The proposed model can minimize the tolerable errors associated with constructing a digital face, enhancing multimedia or animation applications by reducing formulation costs and creating more realistic digital objects.


Exercise 51

An appropriate evaluation model to select brands of natural gas buses can be developed. Brands of natural gas buses can be selected by the proposed model, according to a cost effectiveness analysis. Each criterion can also be evaluated in terms of cost and effectiveness. Two methodologies of multiple attribute decision making (MADM), the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), can then be used to rank comprehensively all viable alternatives to bus systems. As anticipated, the ranking methodology can provide a more objective outcome, including weights of related decision groups, than can other methodologies. The ranking methodology can also provide a more flexible procedure with respect to an outcome's complexity. Moreover, the ranking outcome enables decision makers to identify the order preferences for alternatives. The proposed model can also evaluate the relationship among cost and effectiveness of all viable alternatives to bus systems. Furthermore, the proposed model can provide a valuable reference for government when selecting brands of bus systems.


Exercise 52

Cesium iodine and cesium bromide crystals doped with OH impurities can be grown using different methods, including the Stockbarger method in vacuum and the Kyropolous method in air. Gamma irradiation can be performed at room temperature, using a Co60 gamma-source at a dose rate of 3800 rad.s-1.The conductivity of both irradiated and non-irradiated crystals can be measured as a function of temperature. As anticipated, the conductivity can be explained by the different thermal stabilities of simple and complicated radiation defects, as well as by accompanying recombination processes. The results of this study can provide further insight into the peculiarities of rebuilding radiation defects in cesium halides doped with OH impurities.



Exercise 53

Although Taiwan’s Ministry of Education is increasingly emphasizing the use of multi-assessment in middle schools and universities, the conventional methods of assessing students’ abilities fail to assess higher-order thinking since they can not motivate students properly. Combining the flexibility of a network with the storage capacity of a computer, this work presents a novel networked portfolio system that uses peer assessment to assess the higher-order thinking of students.


Exercise 54

Although an increasing number of Genetic Algorithm (GA) courses on solving optimization problems are offered, students spend much time in coding programs as exercises when learning GAs, many of which can not be implemented in a short time. Therefore, this work presents a novel learning environment that can assist students in flexibly learning genetic algorithms, based on computer-assisted instruction. Several benchmark problems are integrated in this environment. A mathematical expression is then developed to provide fitness functions of GAs. Next, a case study of a GA course is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed environment.


Exercise 55

Taiwan’s global competitiveness ranking in the IMD World Competitiveness Scoreboard is falling. The IMD Competitiveness Simulations neglect interactions among factors, possibly causing policy makers to make inaccurate decisions. Therefore, this work develops a novel competitiveness model that can integrate a global optimization algorithm into the IMD World Competitiveness Model.  Population data are collected from the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook. Variables are then analyzed.


Exercise 56

Situation 1

Simulation results indicate that the proposed model reduces the time to construct a 3D face by 10%, by optimizing the 3D model rather than manually retrieving 2D images. Moreover, the proposed model minimizes the tolerable errors associated with constructing a digital face, enhancing multimedia or animation applications by reducing formulation costs and creating more realistic digital objects.


Exercise 57

Simulation results indicate that the proposed architecture can automatically page PDA users through their handheld mobile devices when desired information becomes available. Moreover, the novel architecture allows PDA users to access information according to their geographic position, which functions as a filter. Our results further demonstrate that the architecture proposed herein is highly promising for commercialization as PDA software.


Exercise 58

Analytical results indicate that the novel learning environment reduces the time required for students to complete a GA assignment to one week, increasing the number of exercises to be practiced and improving the learning of GAs. Moreover, the learning environment eliminates the need for hand coding GA programs, simplifying the process of learning genetic algorithms.




Exercise 59

A solid background in quality control, financial analysis, and industrial management at National Chiao Tung University explains Bob’s determination to become a successful manager. During graduate school, he participated in many collaborative projects that involved industrial organizations such as ITRI, AMAT and Chailease Finance. This invaluable exposure made ABC Corporation a logical choice for his first employment upon graduation, owing to its active role among global enterprises. Eager to contribute to the strengthening of ABC's organizational culture, Bob has been preparing for several years to enter the challenging semiconductor industry. As is well known, the intensely competitive global market is driven by customers who demand the highest quality products. With this in mind, Bob believes that ABC company will provide him not only with a dynamic environment in which to apply his academic skills but also invaluable training to become an effective manager.


Exercise 60

As well as being intrigued by ancient and other cultures, Allen is especially fascinated by the richness and color of human relationships.  This fact explains why he completed a Master’s degree in Social Anthropology from National Tsing Hua University.  With the advent of the new knowledge economy, humans and their knowledge (rather than pure capital) profoundly determine an enterprise's success.   Skilled manpower is essential and Human Resources Management aims to retain employees at a company and effectively manage the knowledge that they create.

Although different disciplines, Human Resources Management and Anthropology both focus on humans and culture.  The latter adopts a global perspective and aims to integrate other societal viewpoints.   Striving to understand human relationships, Allen is also interested in adopting different strategies and problem-solving measures to stimulate creativity and increase work productivity.

However, management theory and practices differ from anthropological ones.  Notable examples include MBA theory and strategy, salary structure design and performance management, intellectual property law and employee law, organizational culture and leadership, and employer-employee relationships.

If able to secure employment at the Human Resources Department of National Central University, Allen believes that he will significantly contribute to related areas such as salary structure design, performance management, intellectual property law, organizational culture, leadership and employer-employee relationships.


Exercise 61

Computers, telecommunications and related consumer products have markedly elevated living standards for quite some time. While some products entertain and offer convenience as well as comfort, others save time and reduce workload. Such diversified products have intrigued Tom since high school. This fascination explains why he completed his undergraduate studies in Electrical Engineering at National Tsing Hua University, one of Taiwan's premier institutes of higher learning. He also took a Master’s degree in the same field from this university to acquire advanced academic training. While offering a unique workplace environment to put his academic skills into practice, DEF Corporation, a leading core logic and graphics supplier, can provide an excellent opportunity to foster his professional skills. Tom believes that his solid academic foundation and advanced research expertise will prove invaluable for any project team in which he is involved at DEF Corporation.


Exercise 62

With its recent entry into the World Trade Organization, Taiwan will encounter intense competition from global financial markets and must accelerate deregulation and globalization. As widely anticipated, the liberalization of interest rate derivatives, options, swaps, mortgage securities, and currency derivatives will occur in the near future.  Developing expert capabilities in such areas is essential to match the rapid changes and innovation in Taiwan's financial market. Financial Engineering, an emerging field in Finance, addresses such issues and is the center of Matt’s interest in joining ABC Company, which has actively implemented related practices.


Exercise 63

Taiwan’s electronics industry was not, until only a decade ago, globally competitive. Before that time, most corporations were not very profitable since they focused on assembling product components, while overseas firms dominated the manufacturing of vital components such as the CPU and the chipset. Taiwan’s government then devoted itself to developing the electronics industry so that many Taiwanese corporations can now design complex chips.  This ability has allowed local firms to generate considerable product revenues and capture a sizable share of the global market. An increasing number of Taiwanese companies have extended their product lines to telecommunications, especially wireless communications. Such products are widely anticipated to have a high added value in the near future. These exciting trends in the telecommunications industry in Taiwan have largely determined Jack’s decision to undertake IC design research in telecommunications. Jack feels confident that he is moving in the right direction.


Exercise 64

Computer applications have exploded with the emergence of computer graphics displays. Such displays allow users to present not only numbers and text, but also pictures and graphs that illustrate the implications of related figures.  Doing so greatly adds to the quality of text material. Widely anticipated to become a consumer electronics product commonly found in households, the personal computer will be able to integrate graphics, audio and video features. Nevertheless, technological advances in semiconductor manufacturing technology have enabled the embedding of a graphics accelerator within the chipset (core-logic) into an integrated chip. Multimedia processes are directly sent to the integrated chip, reducing the overload of the processing recourse in the CPU. ABC Corporation, a leading core logic and graphic chips supplier, has positioned itself to be a leading manufacturer of system-on-a-chip (SoC). ABC's commitment to product excellence explains why Amy is eager to join the corporate family.



Exercise 65

While working on his Bachelors degree in Chemistry from National Tsing Hua University, Sam developed a love for laboratory work and a strong interest in quality control. At his work in the Quality Assurance Department of ABC company, he focuses on statistical process control (SPC) and measurement systems analysis (MSA), and occasionally performs MASK inspection. As well known, an unstable or inaccurate measurement system causes errors in process control and judgment. Sam is especially concerned with determining whether a measurement system is stable, ensuring repeatability, reproducibility and matching of a measurement system, and criteria for assessment.


Exercise 66

Electrical engineering has fascinated Mary from an early age, and she has taken related courses since university. Having nearly completed a Master's degree in Electronics Engineering from National Chiao Tung University, her research focuses on discrete signal process, digital control and VLSI. Graduate school has taught her innovative ways of solving problems logically and independently.  With her strong interest in the impact on our lives by integrated circuit technologies, Mary believes that GHI Corporation would provide the ideal working environment for her to further pursue her professional interests.  Becoming a member of the GHI family would also allow her to apply her strong research fundamentals to this exciting industrial field of integrated circuit design.


Exercise 67

John has long been intrigued by science and technology. This interest culminated in his successful completion of a Master's degree in Electrical Engineering from National Taiwan University, one of Taiwan's renowned universities. He then entered the hi-tech IC design industry, with a particular interest in logic design, communications and computer networks. While at graduate school, John was involved in a project in which he simulated an Ethernet protocol.  His first assignment at JKL Corporation was to develop an Ethernet MAC controller. He is now developing a Serial ATA controller, a computer network product.  John is glad that he has been able to apply his practical laboratory experience from graduate school to the highly competitive working environment that JKL Corporation offers.



Exercise 68

Desiring to strengthen his theoretical and professional knowledge, Jerry acquired a Master's degree in Environmental Engineering from National Chiao Tung University. Following graduation, he worked in a consulting firm and participated in several projects. This work experience exposed him to a wide array of pollution control technologies and equipment. As evidence of his desire to continually improve his research skills, Jerry received certification as an "Air Pollution Control Equipment Technician" from the R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, following an intensive training course. The course addressed the formation and prevention of air pollutants and taught him training skills that will make him a valuable member of any research team, hopefully at ABC Company.


Exercise 69

Joy received a Master's degree in Information Science from National Chiao Tung University, with a specialization in computer architecture. Despite her academic training, Joy is not particularly interested in hardware design. Instead, she prefers to create organizational and architectural designs and then write programs to simulate their effectiveness. She then proceeds to analyze the simulation results and modify the design to improve performance. IC design houses increasingly emphasize time to market for products to increase profits. However, in light of such requirements, implementing and optimizing the hardware are extremely difficult. Therefore, simulation and analysis are necessary to balance time to market with product quality. Joy is especially interested in this area of research.


Exercise 70

Max received a Master's degree in Electronic Engineering from one of Taiwan’s premier universities, National Taiwan University, in 1994. By providing him with a solid background in computer science, the departmental curricula allowed Max to absorb fundamental knowledge while obtaining practical laboratory experiences. At graduate school, he participated in a National Science Council-sponsored research project, aimed at developing a wireless Local Area Network. In addition to enhancing Max’s communication skills by collaborating in a team, the research effort fostered his analytical and experimentation skills. This solid academic training challenged him to view bottlenecks in research as challenges rather than setbacks, thus increasing his patience and perseverance. Max believes that his solid academic training will give him a competitive edge in the workplace, hopefully at ABC Company.


Exercise 71

Bill’s studies at the Institute of Electronics Engineering at National Cheng Kung University provided him with a solid background knowledge of telecommunications and signal processing, as well as the desire to become a designer in this exciting field. After receiving his Master's degree and completing Taiwan's compulsory military service of nearly two years, he joined ABC Corporation to undertake signal processing-related research. Collaborative teamwork at ABC Corporation has stressed close cooperation among colleagues and minimization of design complexity, ultimately lowering product cost. Bill has excelled in logic design-related systems, such as Modelsim, Debussy, Mat lab and HDL. Moreover, his experience has sharpened his ability to analyze the merits and limitations of these methods, think logically, collect related information, and meet customer specifications, while using minimal resources. Bill is determined to devote himself to a career in telecommunications-related research so that he can continually refine the professional skills required to thrive in this highly competitive environment.


Exercise 72

During his six years as an engineer, Benson has actively engaged in several large public engineering projects, such as the Taiwan High Speed Railway, the Taipei Rapid Transit System, and National Highway Projects. Owing to the increasing governmental deficit and the trend to finance large public engineering construction projects, he has learned how to evaluate a project's financial plan. Given his strong analytical skills, Benson has focused on financial topics related to engineering, such as derivative pricing, fitting yield curves, and innovative financial product design.




Exercise 73

As a statistician in the Sanitary and Health Care Center at Feng Chia University for two years and at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the past six months, Harry has acquired much professional, hands-on knowledge of data analysis that has prepared him for a career in health-related research and knowledge management, on an international level. Collaborating with several companies on numerous projects, he has learned much about project management, leadership development and customer relations. During that period, he also audited courses in relevant areas, such as Financial Investment, Reliability Engineering and Human Relations. Harry’s ability to develop knowledge-related skills and then apply them to management in a technological setting would make him invaluable as an engineer at ABC Company. 


Exercise 74
While at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Alex served twice as a counselor in the Electrical Engineering Camp, which is sponsored by the Electrical Engineering Department. This camp helps high school students to grasp the basic concepts of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. Counselors thoroughly discuss the curriculum beforehand to arrange the details.  Roundtable discussions held nightly during the camp address difficulties in instruction and review the following day's schedule. This activity developed Alex’s collaborative, coordinating, organizational, and communicative skills. He believes that such experiences have greatly improved his work performance.
Exercise 75
At university, Carey was involved with an environmental protection organization for which he attempted to understand how industry adversely impacts the environment, while considering industry to be an extension of science.  This experience allowed him to develop a theoretical foundation to balance nature and science.  Trying to grasp scientific knowledge in practical contexts is a good form of training.  As well as broadening his horizons, these experiences gave Carey a framework for collaborating with others with various backgrounds, thus increasing his confidence in achieving goals by systematically applying knowledge and skills.  Developing communication skills was one of the most rewarding experiences of his undergraduate years.

Exercise 76

Realizing that the faculty and students of the Electrical Engineering Department should actively introduce its programs to recruit senior high school students, Jason worked with other classmates to organize an Electrical Engineering camp on the university campus. This camp informed students of the programs they can pursue after passing a rigorous nationwide entrance examination to enter the Department at National Cheng Kung University. In this camp, he was responsible for preparing curricula materials, teaching in the classroom, and helping students to complete experiments. He closely monitored the students and assisted them in finishing activities. These responsibilities enabled Jason to implement the knowledge that he had learned in the classroom and sharpen his presentation skills. Moreover, this experience strengthened and broadened his knowledge base, and further enhanced his ability to collaborate closely with peers. This unique opportunity proved to be one of the most rewarding experiences of Jason’s undergraduate years.







Exercise 347

Susan’s recent research interests have not only provided her with a sound theoretical knowledge of medical technology, but also allowed her to develop advanced expertise in conducting independent research.  In pursuing these interests, she has acquired many professional skills to become familiar not only with the demands of her chosen career path, but also with potential employment opportunities in the rapidly evolving medical technology field.  As for the specifics of her research involvement, Susan has conducted experiments to purify trypsin inhibitors from seeds and characterize the trypsin inhibitor assay.  She will apply her professional and academic knowledge in a biotechnology or bioscience-related career, hopefully at the Industrial Technology Research Institute, commonly known as ITRI.  She is confident in her ability to design and implement a research plan, allowing her to contribute significantly to the advancement of Taiwan’s medical technology sector.  She hopes that ITRI will find these valuable assets conducive to its organizational needs.


Exercise 348

Tom’s interest in information technology stems from his first contact with this field in undergraduate computer classes. The Internet especially fascinates him, with its ability not only to provide seemingly unlimited information that can be conveniently accessed anywhere, but also to help him cut down on expenses that he might otherwise spend on textbooks or other literature. Although the Internet is his information source, Tom occasionally peruses the latest technology magazines at the bookstore. Information technologies have definitely transformed living standards globally, as new innovations seem to appear daily.  This fact explains why almost everyone is eager to learn how to use the latest computer programs and acquire as many knowledge-based skills as possible. Besides his strong interest in information technologies, Tom has acquired much valuable research experience through graduate studies in the Institute of Business Management at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology.  These two ingredients are crucial for his fully realizing his career aspirations. He can further refine his skills if employed at ABC Corporation. The opportunity to work at ABC Corporation would provide Tom with an excellent environment not only to actualize his potential in a career, but also allow him to apply theoretical knowledge-management concepts taught in graduate school in a practical work setting.



Exercise 349

Mary was first exposed to hospital management during undergraduate school, where she read many hospital management-related case studies in preparation for her senior thesis. Changes in Taiwan’s national health insurance system have posed serious challenges for hospitals, requiring that they employ skilled management professionals.  Becoming aware of an individual hospital’s needs has shown Mary the importance of hospitals establishing feasible strategies for remaining competitive.  Additionally, frequently coming into contact with hospitals has allowed her to spend considerable time to learn about their unique organizational culture and research related topics. For instance, she once consulted a hospital administrator on the various practices adopted in daily operations. Such experiences made her aware of how novel management concepts can be applied in a practical setting. Moreover, Mary is committed to strengthening her research capabilities. Doing so will make her a more competent professional, allowing her to face unforeseeable obstacles more effectively. As a researcher, she strives to distinguish herself from other collaborators while remaining congenial and approachable.  For her, working in a management position in a hospital involves many exciting challenges, and the opportunity to work at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital would allow her to realize her career aspirations fully. Mary is determined to learn as much as possible while contributing any beneficial results that she can generate. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital would be an excellent learning environment in which Mary could wholeheartedly contribute her knowledge and expertise.


Exercise 350

The prevalence of many diseases increases as human civilization progresses.  For instance, the incidence of human cancer is on the rise.  With his research interest in cancer and the human immune system, John hopes to participate in a learning module where he can work further on this fascinating topic.  With the recent emergence of biotechnology as a significant area of scientific development, his expertise gained at graduate school will hopefully enable him to contribute significantly to society as he strives to discover new scientific applications.  To achieve his professional aspirations, John hopes eventually to obtain a doctorate degree in a related field.  As scientific and technological breakthroughs are made daily, biotechnology appears to have limitless potential applications, necessitating the aggressive research efforts. Hoping to contribute to society to alleviate the suffering of those with diseases, John believes that DEF Company offers an excellent working environment in which to pursue a research career in the intensely competitive biotech sector.



Exercise 351

Human relations have intrigued Lisa since childhood. Each individual has his or her own unique way of communicating. Finding the most effective way to communicate one’s intended meaning is essential.  Lisa’s fascination with this endeavor led her to continue to research human relations after completing undergraduate school.  A management course in which she enrolled during her senior year at university totally challenged her previous ways of thinking. During that period, she decided to pursue a Master’s degree in Business Management. Her work experience after she received undergraduate and graduate level training increased her desire to grasp management principles more fully.  Theoretical knowledge has little value without work experience. Several years of practical work experience and solid determination have prepared Lisa for a management level position in a reputed company such as GHI Corporation.


Exercise 352

Taiwan’s national health insurance scheme was instituted in 1995 to integrate insurance and medical treatment throughout the island. All Taiwanese residents participate in the health insurance scheme, by the deduction of a certain amount from their monthly income. They are thus entitled to hold an insurance card for hospital outpatient or admissions services, paying only a small fraction of the entire cost. This health insurance scheme provides a valuable service, especially for those in poverty and for the elderly. However, an increase in monthly premium costs has led to many individuals’ excessively using medical treatment resources, straining the system’s finances. Therefore, Jerry is interested in formulating an indicator to monitor the financial strain experienced by a hospital.  He is encouraged that his professional interests match Mackay Memorial Hospital’s specialization in providing quality medical services.



Exercise 353

Taiwan has positioned itself as ‘Green Silicon Island’ following its swift industrial development in recent decades. Besides scientific, technological and societal advances, international marketing and management are essential. However, Taiwan’s information industry severely lacks international marketing and management personnel. The integration of IT with marketing or management science has recently emerged in Taiwan as an important area of research. Although the Taiwanese information sector has access to state-of-the-art technologies, few related products have been exported. Moreover, few Taiwanese products have brand recognition abroad.  Thus, local companies that seek for their products to have international appeal require personnel with international marketing and management backgrounds. As a leader in the information technology sector, DEF Corporation is renowned for its state-of-the-art products and services, as well as outstanding product research and technical capabilities. Tom hopes to become a member of the DEF corporate family; his expertise developed in graduate school and his strong academic knowledge and practical skills will definitely make him an asset to any collaborative product development effort. Offering more than just technical expertise, Tom is especially interested in how DEF Corporation’s marketing and related management departments make strategic decisions.  Employment at DEF Corporation will undoubtedly expose him to new fields, as long as he remains open and does not restrict himself to the range of his previous academic training.


Exercise 354

While biotechnology has emerged in Taiwan in recent years, the island severely lacks biotechnology professionals with management backgrounds, preventing Taiwan from keeping up with recent global trends in research and development.  Biotechnology has the potential to integrate seemingly polar disciplines to create new applications, methods and market sectors in Taiwan.  Taiwan’s biotech sector has the potential to develop medical applications.  As a recognized leader in the biotechnology sector, ABC Corporation can provide Jeff with an ideal working environment in which he can contribute to the development of innovative medical scientific applications.  If successful in securing employment at this corporation, he will strive to enhance his research capabilities and professional knowledge. Employment at ABC Corporation will undoubtedly provide Jeff with a practical context for his graduate school training, ensuring that he will not restrict himself to the scope of his previous research.



Exercise 355

Taiwan has become a globally leading manufacturing center, especially in computer-related products. Although imported information systems are adopted extensively in manufacturing, analyzed information is typically insufficient to help staff to complete their tasks effectively. Thus, overwork remains critical to manufacturing many products rapidly. Accordingly, death due to overworking has been much discussed recently. Individuals who grow up in such a competitive environment strive to work efficiently. Thus, methods of upgrading information systems to suit Taiwan’s unique manufacturing processes and management culture are increasingly important. An excellent system depends not only on information technology but also on the appropriate consideration of management issues. Therefore, following her completion of a graduate degree in Business Management and several years of work experience in the information sector, Amy hopes to further her expertise in this area through employment in a globally renowned corporation, such as GHI Corporation. She is confident in her ability to pursue a research career in this field and, in so doing, to contribute significantly to society. 




Exercise 356

The hectic pace and pressure of daily life, as well as the consumption of some highly nutritious foods, account for the increasing rate of cancer in the general population. Therefore, identifying adequate therapeutic treatments and prognostic factors is essential in the field of radiological technology; Susan has a particular interest in management in this field. Breast cancer persists as the second leading cause of death among females with cancer. In academia, Susan has always been interested in identifying prognostic factors of breast cancer and especially those factors that can promote cures for treated patients. Opportunities in the technical and medical sectors of this field appear to be limitless. The variety of research projects and departments within ABC Company is quite impressive, and explains the company having taken a leading role in the medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Working at ABC Company would definitely promote her professional development.  Having gained medical imaging expertise in graduate school, Susan believes that her solid academic training and practical knowledge will contribute to ABC Company’s efforts to improve its reputation and technological capabilities, not only benefiting society but also increasing corporate profits.



Exercise 357

Taiwan’s hospitals severely lack medical professionals with a biotechnology background. This shortage may eventually obstruct societal progress and considerable resources may eventually have to be expended to solve unforeseeable problems.  Matt is thus determined to improve his biotechnology-related skills for a career in medical imagery.  As evidenced by its highly respected training courses in nuclear medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital has state-of-the-art instruments and expertise in handling stroke patients.  For instance, its excellent staff has perfected easily distinguishing ischemia from hemorrhaging.  If successful in securing employment at National Taiwan University Hospital, Matt will bring to this organization a solid academic background and practical expertise that will hopefully increase the life expectancy of hospital patients.   Moreover, having passed an extremely difficult entrance examination taken by medical professionals in his field, he believes that his knowledge of medical imaging will be an asset to any clinical department to which he belongs. 



Exercise 358

Having devoted himself to developing computer information systems for over a decade, Larry is well aware that no information system can be implemented without problems.  The end user must always spend much time to modify functions that are related to practical operations. Even after a system has gone online, it must be continually enhanced or modified because of corporate re-engineering, re-organization, ergonomic issues and consumer demand. Thus, Larry constantly strives to equip himself with stronger analytical skills to identify accurately what aspects of an information system must be developed, enhanced or modified.  His maturation as a proficient researcher during graduate school will hopefully prove to be a valuable asset to ABC Corporation, allowing Larry to contribute significantly to any product development efforts.



Exercise 359

The intellectual rigor of highly theoretical study over nearly four years in the Department of Nuclear Science at National Tsing Hua University equipped Jim with a solid background in independently conducting experiments. During this period, his extensive laboratory training made him extremely conscientious and careful in using laboratory instruments, while ensuring timely completion of tasks. Following his undergraduate studies, he served as a research assistant in the Institute of Environmental Engineering at National Taiwan University. As a highly adept investigator in the laboratory, Jim learned not only how seemingly disparate fields are related to each other, but also how to succeed in complex projects that force him to apply theoretical concepts in a practical context.  This practical experience greatly increased his competence in obtaining pertinent data and analyzing problems independently. ABC Corporation will hopefully find these qualities to be invaluable to any research in which he is involved.


Exercise 360

Owing to a deep interest in biotechnology, Jane has actively participated in projects aimed at establishing a humane leukemia disease model in zebrafish embryos. Her experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of her proposed model. This disease model provided a formation mechanism of use in other animal models. This model is also a valuable reference for physicians when they treat patients. After carefully reading DEF Company's on-line promotional material, Jane is especially interested in its innovative product development strategy and in its laboratory, which are responsible for the company’s leading its field. She is confident of DEF’s ability to give her the opportunity to build upon her previous experience in the above area.



Exercise 361

Following graduation from university, Sam joined the army as a professional soldier and officer. He was initially responsible for handling the administration of the physical examinations of six thousand new soldiers out of a large squadron of around ten thousand military personnel.  In this capacity, he was directly responsible to a general. The environment provided him with many opportunities not only to come into contact with hospital staff and physicians, but also to familiarize himself with large-scale operations. These valuable experiences enabled Sam to comprehend not only why confusion often arose in a health-related environment, but also why health-care administration students become discouraged with many management methods that are neither applicable to practical business nor innovative. His second job involved managing the activities of nearly 160 soldiers. Applying his previous experiences to the tasks at hand, Sam realized how students lack experience in implementing various models and conducting operations in medium-sized and large-scale organizations. His experiences have allowed him to understand fundamental concepts of importance to any professional in the health care and management sector. LMN Corporation can provide him with a unique opportunity to build upon his previous experiences in the above areas.


Exercise 362

Max is concerned with the needs and satisfaction of hospital emergency patients, as evidenced by his recent collaboration with colleagues in a study that involved a questionnaire given to family members. It contained 125 queries on the level of treatment provided by physicians and emergency staff. The level of satisfaction with the emergency unit’s treatment of their relatives was only 80%, reflecting how public health personnel cannot satisfy the medical consumer’s demand for quality healthcare. The results of that study provide a valuable reference for hospital administrators regarding how to increase the standard of care offered by public health personnel.  If Max were employed at the Veterans General Hospital in Taipei, the medical center would offer him comprehensive training and challenges that would greatly enhance his professional skills.


Exercise 363

When at undergraduate school, Karen participated in a National Science Council-sponsored research project, which led to her subsequent graduate study of Chinese herbal medicine.  The findings of her research have been published in domestic and international journals.  She has also participated in developing an undergraduate enzymology curriculum, which received praise from both teachers and students.  While researching enzyme-related topics in graduate school, she also became adept at conducting experiments on microbe development, genetic engineering and agent analysis. Having both participated in curriculum development and mastered several laboratory skills, Karen was also actively engaged in food science research aimed at the genetic modification of microbes and analysis of related properties and agents.  In summary, her research skills acquired as an undergraduate in the Food Science Department and as a graduate student at the Institute of Biotechnology reflect her commitment to pursuing a biotechnology-related career in the food science sector. Karen is confident in her ability to contribute significantly to product development efforts at GHI Corporation, to create healthy food and medicine.



Exercise 364

Ellen’s strong desire constantly to strengthen her statistical capabilities is reflected by her active participation in a collaborative project with an ophthalmologist at Kuo General Hospital in analyzing medical data and storing them in a novel database for statistical software.  Carefully analyzing the data revealed unique phenomena related to the hospital’s particular circumstances, providing a valuable reference for administrators who are making marketing-related decisions about the medical sector.  The project involved the use of data mining approaches to identify patients’ particular needs.  This project made Ellen aware that a hospital must distinguish itself from others by its marketing practices to gain a competitive edge.  Having paid considerable attention to effective hospital management, IJK Corporation has played a leading role in the medical sector.  Extensive on-the-job training is a notable example of its commitment to quality excellence.  Such training could provide Ellen with the latest knowledge required to build on her previous experiences in the above area.



Exercise 365

Larry’s strong commitment to the Business Management field has involved acquiring knowledge and skills through graduate school training. This commitment has not only made him competent academically, but also allowed him to thrive in the workplace. During undergraduate training, while learning how to adopt different perspectives when solving a particular problem, he acquired several statistical and analytical skills. Doing so involved learning how to analyze problems, identify potential solutions, and implement those solutions according to concepts taught in the classroom. Larry’s excellence in these areas proved especially effective in devising marketing strategies for research purposes. When initially lacking expertise in a particular topic at the outset, he strives to absorb quickly new information and adapt to new situations.  He believes that ABC Company will find this quality highly desirable.



Exercise 366

Graduate level research in biochemistry exposed Susan to a wide array of issues in salivary hormone research.  While writing her Master’s thesis, she was fortunate enough to be supervised by a renowned professor from National Taiwan University, allowing her to receive specialized training in his laboratory. Susan adopted these extremely high standards in the laboratory and handled a heavy workload, so she learned many new skills and advanced techniques. Her graduate research focused mainly on saliva hormone assay, an emerging field of clinical diagnosis.  Becoming skillful in the use of the latest techniques in this field made her confident in both her theoretical and practical expertise in the laboratory. This acquired expertise has greatly increased her awareness of the latest developments in the field, both practical and theoretical, allowing her eventually to take a leading role in laboratory activities. Additionally, the various seminars and conferences in which Susan participated increased her opportunity to acquire and exchange knowledge with peers in various ways. Co-authoring papers as a graduate student made her aware of the detailed publication and review process. Combined with her extensive experience as a technical assistant that matured her as a researcher, her advanced training will place her in a better position to understand and respond to the frequent changes that occur in clinical science.  Given her solid academic background, Susan is confident in her ability to contribute significantly to DEF Company’s efforts to develop innovative technology products.



Exercise 367

Graduate school exposed Jerry to the high pressure and demands of conducting original research and publishing findings in international journals.  These capabilities will undoubtedly allow him to excel in the biotechnology field, as they more fully equip him with technical and professional expertise.  His diverse scientific interests allow him to see beyond the conventional limits of a discipline and fully comprehend how his field relates to others. Undergraduate and graduate-level courses in biotechnology often included term projects that allowed him to apply theoretical concepts in a practical context and develop problem-solving skills.  While pursuing a Master’s degree, Jerry received intensive training.  More specifically, he learned how to analyze problems, find solutions, and implement those solutions according to the concepts taught in class.  He is absolutely confident that his academic background, experimental and work experience in biotechnology, strong desire for acquiring knowledge and love of challenges will enable him to succeed in GHI Corporation’s highly demanding product development projects.


Exercise 368

Mary’s academic study enabled her to search for sources of problems by gathering large amounts of data to offer hypotheses for her research. As a graduate student, she handled a heavy schedule, performing many experiments in collaboration with her classmates, thereby cultivating many friendships. In graduate school, Mary strived to distinguish between theoretical and practical applications to understand the global implications of her field. Moreover, her academic activities allowed her not only to strengthen her English language skills, but also to take many unique leadership opportunities that allowed her to broaden her horizons and become a high achiever.  Whether she can contribute to society depends on whether she can remain conscientious, flexible and focused. Continual self-improvement through employment in JKL Corporation will allow Mary to see fruitful results of her work and, in so doing, make her life more meaningful.



Exercise 369

Tom’s undergraduate training in Radiotechnology and his Master’s degree in Medical Imagery enabled him to acquire sufficient expertise to contribute significantly to Taiwan’s medical sector.   He focused on nuclear medicine and radiochemistry, with a particular emphasis on developing radiochemistry-related analytical skills as well as becoming proficient in conducting laboratory experiments. Undergraduate and graduate-level courses in radiochemistry and medical imagery taught him a wide array of theoretical concepts associated with radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Tom’s research at graduate school often involved deriving complex models and modifying clinical practices to meet research requirements. He also attended several international conferences on radiology technology, increasing his exposure to the radiochemistry profession. Moreover, intensive laboratory training enhanced his ability to respond effectively to unforeseen bottlenecks in research. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital will undoubtedly find Tom’s experiences to be a valuable asset to any collaborative effort in which he is engaged.



Exercise 370

Laura’s interest in biotechnology can be traced back to her first exposure to physiology. She thus completed a master’s degree with an emphasis on biotechnology. In the laboratory, she accumulated much bio-informatics-related knowledge.  While pursuing a Master’s degree in Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, she conducted biotechnology-related research at the Animal Technology Institute of Taiwan (ATIT). Graduate-level research prepared her for the rigorous demands of generating experimental results and publishing those findings in domestic and international journals. She has acquired fundamental and advanced research capabilities.  She has not only nurtured a talent in biotechnology through a multidisciplinary approach, but also widened her field of interest to grasp fully the latest biotechnology-related concepts. Moreover, her participation in research projects that encompassed other seemingly unrelated fields reflects her willingness to absorb tremendous amounts of information and manage her time efficiently.  Working at ABC Company would provide Laura with an excellent environment not only to realize fully her career aspirations, but also to apply theoretical knowledge management concepts taught in graduate school, in a practical work setting.


Exercise 371

Although Alice has had several practicum internships at different hospitals during university, her current work is in a totally different area from the work she has been involved in previously. Although initially unfamiliar with the medical instrumentation, work environment and work flow, she learned quickly, and her colleagues helped her to become more proficient. Interpersonal skills are necessary in developing a collaborative environment among the staff and increasing work efficiency. A strong sense of comradeship enables each individual to perform his or her task.  Alice’s work has also exposed her daily to patients from all walks of life; she empathizes with those in pain and is concerned with their welfare, as well as that of their family and dependants. She has been able to use this empathy in examining them thoroughly and accurately diagnosing disease symptoms. As a graduate school student, Alice acquired the theoretical knowledge she needed to combine with her clinical experience to enable her to enhance her research capabilities more effectively to help her patients. She considers her work to be almost a calling, making her even more determined to serve sick people as an important part of her career.


Exercise 372

In March 2001, before graduation, Max began working at the Radiological Department at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. He benefited greatly from the support of his colleagues. After three months, his colleagues recommended him to preside over all of the department’s activities, to participate in the annual convention, and to make an overseas tour. These tasks deepened his knowledge of the disposition method and the interlocution mode. In the following year, Max represented the Radiological Department at the hospital’s Quality Control Convention, where he received first prize for his work. This accomplishment greatly increased his confidence in his professional abilities. He firmly believes that quality control is essential for patients to benefit from excellent medical services. Additionally, his faith in God supports his belief that opportunities are presented to individuals for a purpose. Despite the challenges of working in the radiology technology profession, Max is determined to succeed. Moreover, he believes that individuals have the freedom to choose what they love, and should learn to love the vocation that they have chosen.



Exercise 373

When assigned a task, Margaret carefully arranges a flexible schedule that can be adjusted in case of a crisis or any need for change. Professional experience with the student association has fostered her communicative skills and her ability to achieve accuracy and efficiency. For instance, holding  conferences is an essential communicative skill in daily work, despite potential tedium and inefficiency. Her ability to use time effectively in meetings reflects her strong desire to identify the interests of individual collaborators while actively pursuing a common goal. Such an approach strengthens her knowledge, skills and expertise. In particular, Margaret has come to understand the merits and limitations of various methods used in business, and the need to clearly define objectives. In addition to a solid academic background, a good manager should have strong communicative, organizational and management skills. Margaret is confident that she possesses such qualities.




Exercise 374

Bill is committed to his many patients. His deep concern for patients’ welfare has led his colleagues and superiors to commend him many times on his responsible attitude. Like most medical professionals, he feels overwhelmed by the rapid rate at which new medical technologies emerge, and are adopted by hospitals. Bill must therefore continually increase his expertise to ensure that his patients can maintain a basic quality of life. For instance, he must know how to repair nuclear medicine machinery. He also believes that remaining optimistic when interacting with others is essential, especially as people become increasingly competitive.




Exercise 375

Teresa participated in a project to assess the quality of a hospital’s medical services. This experience enhanced her academic knowledge and significantly improved her analytical skills and data collection capabilities. Her hands-on experience in a hospital administrative department provided her with numerous opportunities to corroborate what she had learned from textbooks and. then, to apply that knowledge to solving independently the problems at hand. The hospital’s practical training definitely strengthened Teresa’s research skills in areas where she was previously lacking, including problems analysis, data collection, data evaluation and collaboration within a research group. By requiring her to meet many responsibilities, this project greatly matured her as an individual.  These skills will now prove valuable in any future research project in which she is involved, hopefully at DEF Corporation.


Exercise 376

While pursuing her Master’s degree, May continued to work at Ton-Yen General Hospital, which was an excellent environment for conducting graduate-level research.  Her work experience further developed her professional skills and taught her how to collaborate closely with others.  In so doing, she not only absorbed colleagues' perspectives, but also learned how carefully to negotiate with others, while maintaining the dignity of each collaborator. If successful in gaining employment at ABC Corporation, May will strive to contribute to the organization in her unique manner, which is friendly, contemplative and graceful. Her previous work experience definitely supports her aspiration to become a healthcare management professional. Given her strong research capabilities, knowledge and expertise, May is determined to learn as much as possible while contributing any beneficial results that can be generated by research at her workplace.


Exercise 377

At university, Shelly participated in several student associations. For instance, she was actively involved in the student activity center (SAC) for three years. SAC was largely responsible for coordinating the administrative activities of 65 student associations at Chungtai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology. It distributed funds, supervised and supported activities, provided consultation and sponsored large-scale events. At SAC, Shelly was in charge of furnishing and operating stage lighting and acoustics for campus events. This position not only offered her many opportunities to come into contact with people from diverse backgrounds, but also to write proposals and use a wide array of skills. Through much of her experience of serving in the Society of Emergency Medicine, R.O.C., Shelly became aware of the importance of writing skills and related administrative skills because SAC’s approach to planning a framework and implementing operations closely resembles academic research methods. During university, she also served as a student association leader, in which capacity she cooperated with the governmental sector to hold small-scale activities. This position not only improved her organizational skills and ability to handle crises, but also made her a persevering and punctual individual who can cope with unforeseen circumstances.



Exercise 378

John considers himself to be friendly and diligent. At university, he participated in several student association activities, including table tennis, tennis and other class-related activities. Participating in sports allowed him more closely to interact with people. He conducted experiments in his spare time, which required hard work since they often involved trial-and-error procedures. Such experimentation has made him a more patient and persevering individual. Additionally, serving as class leader has improved his ability to coordinate and execute administrative tasks. John firmly believes that every opportunity is an opportunity for learning. His accumulated experiences will definitely benefit his future.



Exercise 379

Lisa is a well-rounded person, as evidenced by her participation in numerous extracurricular activities in which she has acquired numerous professional skills. She also believes that she has an excellent capacity to concentrate. She will devote her energies to accomplish her goals. She has an assertive personality, as proven by her ability to estimate, plan and act efficiently. Moreover, she believes that she is a leader in the sense that she can perform a complex task with a minimum of staff and resources.  She can also assign tasks to subordinates according to their strengths. Finally, Lisa has strong communicative skills. Individuals who collaborate with each other depend on communication and action. More than a communicator, an excellent manager acts effectively and efficiently.



Exercise 380

At university, Bruce participated in a campus mountaineering group. A natural environment benefits his physical stamina and spiritual well being. His activities have allowed him to see various organisms in their natural habitats. When called upon, he has collaborated with peers to prepare outdoor events. Close collaboration has allowed them to undertake serious mountaineering events that have provided great outdoor entertainment. Moreover, these activities have broadened his horizons in other ways, such as allowing him to take advantage of the unique leadership opportunities provided. Both the physical challenges and mental relaxation associated with mountain climbing have allowed Bruce more effectively to balance his academic and extracurricular activities. While relaxing the mind, extracurricular activities enable physical stamina and health to be prioritized. By keeping his mind clear, he is able to work more diligently.


Exercise 381

The many extracurricular activities in which Susan participated at undergraduate school gave her the necessary balance between helping others and determining what path she should take in pursuing a career in research. She was involved with several medical technology organizations, occasionally participating in professional meetings to improve her knowledge, skills and expertise. Additionally, library resources, including the latest medical journals are of great interest to her. Her diverse educational activities have strengthened and broadened Susan’s professional knowledge base and increased her awareness of various medical issues. She prioritizes improving her English language communication skills, enabling her to collaborate with overseas researchers.


Exercise 382

Jerry occasionally volunteers to work with mentally challenged individuals. He recalls last summer vacation, when he volunteered to serve in a group that took some of these adults and children on an outing to Yang Min Mountain. A typical schedule for such an activity is as follows. He leaves his home around 7 am and cycles up to Yang Min Mountain. The adults and children start arriving by school bus at 8 am to prepare for the day’s activities. After taking them to the toilet individually, he instructs them on basic etiquette during their journey to the Park. He must concentrate closely on the mentally challenged individuals and anticipate any unforeseen circumstances. Being responsible for such a large group is physically and mentally draining. In addition to watching out for them, Jerry must converse and interact with them. Nevertheless, volunteer work is personally satisfying. While pursuing his Master’s degree, he had little time for extracurricular activities.  However, he continued to participate in seminars, not all of which were related to his academic interests. He once attended a conference on personal investments. This event taught him much about risk control. While many of his friends and relatives have encouraged him to focus entirely on his professional field, he tries to have a diverse array of interests. Jerry still tries to attain a broad perspective that covers various fields.


Exercise 456

Dear Dr. Smith,

Allow me to introduce myself.  After graduating from Yuanpei University of Science and Technology (YUST) in 1991, I passed the Taiwanese governmental civil service examination in 1994, subsequently securing an administrative position in our country’s National Health Insurance organization. While working, I continued to enhance my administrative skills by taking courses on management in the medical sector at Yangming University.   My rich experience in hospital management has familiarized me with formulae for calculating hospital fees.  I was transferred to a new post in the insurance revenue sector of the National Health Institute in 2003.  My experiences of generating income in the medical sector, and those of monitoring remitted funds in the insurance revenue sector, have greatly matured me as an administrator.  Taiwan’s National Health Insurance scheme is currently faced with strained financial resources and societal and political pressures not to raise monthly health insurance premiums. Innovative approaches are definitely needed to resolve this dilemma.


Your country initiated one of the earliest health insurance systems worldwide, initiated by Chancellor Bismarck in 1883.  Given the radical political, social and economic transformations that Germany went through during the First and Second World Wars, and the more recent reunification of Eastern and Western Germany, your country’s health insurance system has withstood many challenges, making it a model worthy of closer examination.  Many industrialized countries, including Japan, point to the success of your national health insurance scheme, and especially your adoption of a global budget.  Expenditure targets for hospital inpatients are strictly adhered to, and inpatients may pay only 25% of the total cost.  An expenditure cap has been established to reduce customer fees for outpatient services.  Given your aggressive efforts to keep down overhead costs, the average German citizen in 1997 enjoyed an annual average of 11 outpatient services, which was markedly lower than the annual average of 16 in Taiwan. Specifically, we are concerned with how effectively to restrain increases in medical fees.  I hope to visit your organization for three months this year as a visiting researcher to learn about the latest trends in this area.  My organization will cover my expenses during the stay.



Please find attached my personal resume that describes my professional experiences in the above area.  I look forward to hearing from you soon as to whether the cooperation I have described would be feasible. Thanks in advance for your kind assistance.


Sincerely yours,

Mary Lin



Exercise 457

Dear Professor Jones,


Professor Lin Chin Tsai, President of Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, referred me to you. I am pursuing a Master’s degree at the Institute of Business and Management at the university. My graduate school research has focused on Sociometric Science, with specialized training in Statistics and Gray Mathematical Theory. I am currently developing a movement disability morbidity model capable not only of accurately forecasting the population of disabled elderly in Taiwan, but also of overcoming the limitations of the conventional population projection model, which incorporates static disability morbidity.


The university would like me to receive advanced training that would not only familiarize me with the long-term health care system, but also expose me to population distribution research, including variations among long-term health care systems worldwide. Your laboratory, a leader in this field of research, could expose me to the latest trends in long-term health care from a global perspective. I hope therefore to join your laboratory for three months this year, preferably from March to June, if convenient for you. I am most concerned with how such trends in long-term health care will affect Taiwan. The proposed format is that of a self-supported guest worker at your laboratory.


The attached resume will hopefully give you a better idea of my previous academic and professional experiences.  A university colleague of mine (Mr. Jeffrey Wu, tel. (408)1234567 ) who is currently serving as an administrator in a non-profit healthcare organization near your laboratory, can provide you with further information on my background and the purpose of my visit.


I would greatly appreciate your comments regarding this proposal. Thank you for your assistance. I look forward to our future cooperation.
Sincerely yours,

Jason Wu



Exercise 458

Dear Professor Wallace,


I hope to receive training at your hospital in the latest advances in infarct stroke technology.  I am a second year graduate student at the Institute of Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology (YUST), as well as a full-time radiological technologist at Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital in Taipei.  I received a Bachelor’s degree in Radiology from Yuanpei University. In addition to my academic and professional activities, I often read supplemental literature to remain abreast of the latest technological trends. While planning to fulfill my graduate school requirements by June, 2005, I hope to continue in this field of research to integrate the theoretical knowledge acquired at graduate school with my clinical experience in the Radiotechnology Department.


Three associate professors at YUST supervised my graduate school research in magnetic resonance technology. I am currently involved in writing computer programs in the field of image quality and resolution, applying the latest technologies to enable physicians accurately to diagnose diseases in their early stages. I have already drawn up an outline of this project. I am firstly reviewing pertinent patient histories to obtain large volumes of relevant data, which are then analyzed. Pertinent research is then reviewed. The acute infarct of brain tumor patients is then studied. According to the results generated by my academic advisor’s laboratory, less than six hours is required to perform the first diffusion-weighted image (DWI) examination of acute infract patients. DWI is then conducted on the first, third, fifth, seventh days, and then at one month intervals. The B value infarct region is then measured, and then the time changes in the B value curve are analyzed. The results of this study will help physicians to determine proper medication times and their therapeutic effects.


I hope to measure the order of severity of the infarct field in order to enable infarct stroke patients to receive subsequent optimal treatment. Writing an effective integral diffusion mode map requires taking advantage of the latest programs in which different maps appear in direct relation to different diseases. Using these programs, clinical physicians can precisely understand how a disease diffuses to the brain area, and increase the clinical effectiveness of evaluations of patients and curative outcomes. In this area, Taiwan currently lacks technology and qualified technological personnel. I hope eventually to collaborate with a local medical instrument manufacturer to develop relevant software programs. Your hospital provides comprehensive and challenging training of individuals who are committed to this area of research and development. In particular, it is distinguished in training highly skilled radiological technologists.



I will hopefully be able to determine the scope of application of infarct stroke technology in our hospital. The results are used to analyze the feasibility of adopting this technology. Our current research direction is to investigate differences among infarct stroke patients across races and genders. The proposed format, approved by the hospital ethics committee, is that of a self-supported guest worker at your laboratory.


For further information regarding my academic and professional expertise, please contact my academic advisor, Dr. Hong-Jue Liu.  His contact information can be found in the accompanying resume.  I would greatly appreciate your comments regarding this proposal. Thank for your kind assistance. I look forward to our future cooperation.


Sincerely yours,

Jack Wang


Exercise 459


Dear Professor Tung,

My academic advisor, Professor Hsu, suggested that I contact you to ask to work in your laboratory at National Tsing Hua University as a visiting researcher. My academic advisor and you lead the way in dosimetry and microdosimetry-related research in Taiwan. Having acquired four years of clinical experience as a radiographer at a regional hospital, I am currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, where I am a member of the Radiation Detection Laboratory. As well as having a strong background in engineering mathematics, I enjoy researching dosimetry, atomic physics, radiation physics and radiation detection physics-related topics. Despite my lack of a pure science or engineering-related background, I am confident that my solid logical and statistical skills will prove invaluable to any research effort in which I am involved at your laboratory. Moreover, I consider myself diligent and able to grasp new concepts easily.


If given the opportunity to work in your laboratory, I will increase my understanding of the dosimetry-related principles that apply when proton beams are used in radiation therapy. Proton beam instrumentation has been used in radiation therapy for several years. According to Taiwan’s Department of Health, only five facilities worldwide are equipped to conduct proton beam radiation therapy. Owing to Taiwanese governmental legislation on medical treatment, the Department of Health is drafting a resolution on whether to import proton beam instrumentation from abroad for radiation therapy. This is a particularly relevant issue given the planned opening of Hsinchu Biomedical Science Park in 2007.


As widely anticipated, proton beam radiation therapy has many promising applications in Taiwan, making dosimetry-related principles applicable by medical physicists in radiation therapy. The opportunity to serve as a visiting researcher in your laboratory will allow me more fully to explore the above topics and their clinical implications. 


Please carefully consider my application. I look forward to your favorable response.

Sincerely yours,

Mary Li


Exercise 460

Dear Professor Dong,

Given your laboratory’s expertise in developing excellent software for medical instrumentation, I would like to receive technical training in your laboratory during my upcoming summer vacation. I wish to understand how Bioimage, Java and C++ programs can be more effectively implemented in clinical settings in Taiwan.  My academic advisor recommended that working in your laboratory would help me to understand what potential technology transfer opportunities are possible in the local medical instrumentation sector.

Earlier this year, following my participation in three National Science Council-sponsored research projects as an undergraduate student at Tzu Chi College of Technology, I entered the Master’s degree program at the Institute of Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology earlier this year.  My graduate school research is on the synchronization of firing in a growing neural network.  Specifically, our research group is developing an experimental system to observe quantitatively the formation of functional synapses between cerebral cortical neurons from a mouse.  Our experimental results have so far elucidated the interesting phenomenon of synchronous firing, whose frequency increases as a function of the culture period. Our laboratory is developing a unique scanning laser confocal microscope to measure the firing fluorescence image. 

However, continuing with this experimentation requires additional instrumentation and technological expertise, which I currently lack.  I would therefore like to receive technical training for four months in your laboratory.  Unlike ordinary technical training, this four month technical visit will hopefully initiate a long-term collaborative relationship between our two laboratories.  During this period, I am keen to become more proficient in Bioimage technology and learn how effectively to operate related instruments. 

I look forward to hearing your ideas regarding the above proposal.

Sincerely yours,

Jenny Lin

Exercise 461

Dear Dr. Curtin,

The Radiation Therapy Department at National Taiwan University Hospital, where I have acquired more than two decades of clinical experience as a radiology technician, would like me to receive advanced training in cancer therapy as a visiting researcher in your Clinical Cancer Center.  I have extensive professional experience, and am now pursuing a Master’s degree in Medical Imagery at Yuapei University of Science and Technology. Given the opportunity, I will perform advanced research at the NYU Clinical Cancer Center, which has highly skilled personnel and state-of-the-art equipment and facilities. It is globally recognized for its services that improve the lives of cancer patients.  The NYU Clinical Cancer Center has distinguished itself by its quality of patient care, including privacy, safety and comfort.


In my graduate school courses on advanced imaging processing, I became aware of advanced imaging procedures and other diagnostic tests performed at the NYU Clinical Cancer Center to diagnose cancer. Working in your organization would give me a practical context for the concepts learned in class. Our research group has published three articles in Gamma Journal over the past three years. One of our articles addressed the preservation of hearing in nasal and pharyngeal cancer patients who had received post-irradiation treatment. Another article examined the role of magnetic resonance imaging in a herniated inter-vertebral disc, while the third one addressed the perfusion function of F-FDG in SPECT. My current research is on intensity-modulated radiation therapy.


As the NYU Clinical Cancer Center is widely regarded as having the best radiation therapy planning system for cancer treatment worldwide, I hope that my above research interests are in line with those of your research group.  More specifically, I am interested in developing a radiation therapy planning system that would ensure optimal imaging for diagnosing and treating cancer. I am also interested in learning of new ways to offer patients not only physiological, but also spiritual encouragement. Thank you in advance for your careful consideration of this proposed stay as a visiting researcher in your laboratory. I look forward to our future cooperation.


Sincerely yours,

Matt Fung


Exercise 462

Dear Mr. Smith,
Thank you for your message sent via e-mail and dated December 31, 2004, inviting our Taiwanese branch office to exhibit its innovative bedding and pillow products in Cologne, Germany on May 2005.  Before participating in the exhibition, I would like to propose an information exchange relationship between our two organizations regarding the sleeping needs of elderly individuals, hopefully leading to a technology transfer or joint venture opportunity in the near future.


The Taiwanese branch of this bedding company has increased its number of business units by pursuing an aggressive marketing strategy since 2000. It has more than 20 units across the island and has seen a dramatic increase in sales volume.  The branch office tentatively plans to construct a new factory next year and broaden its organizational scope.  Franchises are helped to outperform the competition, as evidenced by our development of several bedding and pillow types and emphasis on electrically heated bedding and customized pillows.


Taiwan’s elderly population has grown rapidly in recent years, and the bedding market has generated considerable revenues.  Given this trend, the R&D Division of the Taiwanese branch has committed significant resources to designing bedding customized for elderly individuals. The Intellectual Property Office of the Ministry of Economic Affairs has already granted the relevant patents.  Given our headquarters’ vast knowledge of consumer trends and technological developments in this area, we would like to exchange product information and manufacturing technology expertise with your R&D unit.  Germany has distinguished itself in the latest technological developments in bedding comfort, the marketing of these products, and consumer relations in this niche. 


To initiate this collaborative relationship, five colleagues from the Taiwan branch (including myself) would like to visit your R&D unit, this upcoming January, hopefully to meet with your departmental managers and research personnel. Let me know which dates would be the most convenient for such a visit.  Prior to our visit, we would appreciate your forwarding to us any materials regarding your company’s technological developments and marketing strategies in this area.  I look forward to hearing your ideas or suggestions regarding this information exchange opportunity. Thank you in advance for your careful consideration. I look forward to this mutually beneficial, cooperative effort.

Sincerely yours,

Becky Ko


Exercise 463

Dear Mr. Push,

As a member of the technical staff of the Nuclear Medicine Department at S.W.M Memorial Hospital, I am involved in various stages of the therapeutic treatment of acute stroke patients.  Given your institution’s state-of-the-art technology and advanced expertise in neurology, I would like to propose a technological information exchange between our two hospital departments on the subject of treating patients with brain ischemia and acute brain stroke. Medical research in Taiwan heavily emphasizes stroke-related factors leading to mortality.


We are anxious to develop long-lasting cooperative relationships with an institution such as yours.  Neurological departments in Taiwan admit weekly nearly 100 stroke patients for clinical treatment. Our hospital has spent considerable resources to reduce the risk of stroke and solve problems that involve blood flow in the brain. As growth in the medical technology sector appears to be unlimited, the neurological department of our hospital is committed to overcoming stroke-related illnesses and reducing the incidence rate of strokes in Taiwan.   Progress in this area depends on the ability of medical institutions to share and exchange relevant experiences – and we look forward to an opportunity to do the same with you. Reading the January 2003 issue of Nuclear Medicine Journal, I learned how your laboratory has reduced semihemisphere bleeding using coregisteration technology. Your ability to differentiate the infarction area in irreversibly damaged tissue is a respectable achievement. HMPAO SPECT can be used to determine the extent to which tracer uptake reduction can accurately predict neurological recovery and various programming languages can be used to write software to identify abnormal sites in the infarct area.  I hope that our staff will have the opportunity to exchange data and experiences in the field of brain stroke patients. Given our hospital’s advanced PET technological capacity to reduce the incidence of stroke, such collaboration would be mutually beneficial, allowing both of our organizations to improve continuously expertise in medical diagnosis.


We look forward to hearing your ideas or suggestions regarding this technological information exchange, covering your work in voxel-based correlations in stroke patients and our research on advanced ischemic damaged tissue. If you agree, I would like to arrange a 14-day technical visit to your department this upcoming October as the first step of our cooperation. Please let me know if you would like to discuss any areas of common knowledge.


Sincerely yours,

Sam Long


Exercise 464

Dear Mr. Haas,

Thank you for your letter dated 10 Nov 2003, which included your article, “Isolation and characterization of functions of genes essential for DNA transformation in Helicobacter pylori”. In response to your invitation, I would like to visit your organization to exchange technological information regarding gene expression, the assay function of proteins and related transformation mechanisms.


As a graduate student at the Institute of Biotechnology Research at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology in Hsinchu, Taiwan, I am collaborating with my professor in a National Science Council-sponsored research project, to generate a mutant library from a clinical isolate of Helicobacter pylori.  The results from our laboratory on Helicobacter pylori, have demonstrated that some gene mutants induce dramatic natural transformation.  Our recent findings have been published in a monthly JBC magazine. The article attempted to characterize genes and their role in the natural transformation of Helicobacter pylori.  The experimental results obtained in this project have already greatly helped Taiwan's development of attenuated vaccine strains of Helicobacter pylori.


Individuals of all ages can get ulcers. The incidence rates of women and men are nearly identical. Over 25 million Americans suffer from an ulcer during their lifetimes. Fortunately, most ulcers are caused by an infection with Helicobacter pylori, opening the possibility of prevention through the development of an effective and safe vaccine. Our research is focused mainly on identifying associated proteins. The results will be helpful in producing an antiserum, preparing membranes and purifying proteins from inclusion bodies.  Your recognized expertise in this area would greatly benefit our own research efforts.  I hope that through a technological information exchange, we will be able to identify areas of mutual interest, possibly leading to a technology transfer or joint venture.


I look forward to your response to some of the above points concerning this information exchange opportunity. Visiting your laboratory for two week to exchange ideas of mutual interest would appear to be a good first step.  Let me know which dates would be the most convenient for you.  Thank you in advance for your careful consideration. I hope that this information exchange opportunity will open doors to future collaboration between our two organizations.

Sincerely yours,

Amy Huang


Exercise 465

Dear Mr. Wang,

Thank you for your message sent via e-mail and dated November 8, 2004 inviting the branch office in Taiwan to exhibit our innovative TFT-LCD products in New York this upcoming March. Before our participation at this exhibition, I would like to propose an information exchange between our two organizations regarding the material development of TFT-LCD products, hopefully leading to a technology transfer in the near future.


As TFT-LCD technology advances, our branch office strives to offer a line of quality products that satisfy consumer demand, both locally and abroad.  Such innovation contributes to the maturation of Taiwan’s recently emerging electronics sector, accelerating technological efforts that boost international competitiveness.  The Taiwanese branch of this TFT-LCD company has increased its number of business units to ten by pursuing an aggressive marketing strategy since 1995, increasing revenues. The branch office tentatively plans to construct a new production facility next year and to broaden its organizational scope.


The range of TFT-LCD products manufactured in Taiwan has grown rapidly in recent years; such products have generated considerable profits. The Taiwanese branch has committed significant resources to designing TFT-LCD products, and the Intellectual Property Office of the Ministry of Economic Affairs has granted several patents. To continue this progress, we would like to exchange product-related information and manufacturing technology expertise with your R&D unit, possibly leading to a joint venture once ties are established. 


To initiate this collaborative relationship, ten colleagues from the Taiwanese branch would like to visit your R&D unit next year, hopefully meeting with your departmental managers and research personnel. Let me know which dates would be the most convenient for such a visit.  Taiwan's TFT-LCD manufacturers focus on producing small and medium-sized panels. Establishing long-term collaborative ties with renowned manufacturers such as yours reflects our resolve to maintain innovation in the production of TFT-LCD in Taiwan.


I look forward to hearing your suggestions regarding this information exchange opportunity. Thank you in advance for your careful consideration. I firmly believe that such a cooperative relationship would mutually benefit both of our organizations.


Sincerely yours,

Jason Wu


Exercise 466

Dear Mr. Smith,

Thank you for your letter dated December 18, 2004, containing the publication Advanced Medical Knowledge. In response, I'd like to propose an information exchange between our two organizations, on the integration of digital image processing, biochemistry and medical technologies for extracting Chinese herbal medicine from natural substances.


As a graduate student at the Institute of Biotechnology at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology (YUST) in Hsinchu, Taiwan, I am currently involved in a project on Chinese herbal medicine extracts. The project is a joint collaboration between our research institute and the Institute of Nuclear Science at National Tsing Hua University, and focuses on generating data regarding Chinese herbal medicine extracts. Our important work includes publishing a bimonthly magazine that describes the extraction and dissemination of Chinese herbal medicine compounds for commercialization. The experimental results generated in this project have already greatly helped efforts to identify Chinese herbal medicine compounds.

The potential integration of digital image processing, biochemistry and medical technology could contribute to Taiwan’s rapid economic growth, fuelled by the development of many innovative technologies. Chinese and Taiwanese have extensively used Chinese herbal medicine for centuries. Given advances in laboratory facilities, instrumentation and available technologies, educational institutions in Taiwan now employ highly qualified technical personnel to conduct advanced research on Chinese herbal medicine-related topics.


Many such projects currently focus on the feasibility of integrating digital image processing with biochemical assessment, molecular biology technologies and the extraction of Chinese herbal medicine from natural substances. We recognize that ensuring the continued success of our efforts in Taiwan depends on the open sharing and exchange of experiences with other similar organizations. Please find enclosed an introductory brochure about the Institute of Biotechnology at YUST, which will provide further details on our mission, methods and current research.


I look forward to hearing your ideas or suggestions regarding this information exchange opportunity. I would also like to arrange for a 15-day technical visit to your organization this upcoming January, as the first step of our cooperation. If at all possible, please notify me as to which dates are most convenient for you. A tentative visiting schedule would also be appreciated. Thank you in advance for your careful consideration.

Sincerely yours,

Sally Lin


Exercise 467

Dear Dr. Curtin,

Given our concern over upgrading the quality of universal medical and teaching facilities worldwide, our organization, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), would like to apply for membership in your society. Having gained more than two decades of clinical experience in radiation therapy, NTHUH is the first medical institute and teaching hospital in Asia. I believe that such an opportunity would be mutually beneficial to both of our organizations.


While focusing on teaching, research and service, NTUH has acquired the best medical personnel and technologists in Asia. Pedagogical activities advance not only medical knowledge, but also the quality of health care. While aspiring to become a leading medical and teaching hospital worldwide, we hope to participate in the activities of other medical and teaching hospital organizations. As well as providing medical services, we strive to improve medical techniques and medical research. For instance, the hospital’s Clinical Cancer Center has recently implemented a therapeutic planning system for cervical cancer, which is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Using this novel system, we can more efficiently locate the target organ and use lower dosages of radiation for normal tissues.  


Continuing with the success of our organization by further upgrading our medical and teaching capabilities depends on our ability to be involved with in wide-reaching organizations such as yours, with a view to improving medical practice in Asia. Joining your organization would allow us openly to exchange experiences with other medical and teaching hospitals worldwide.


Sincerely yours,

Max Bai


Exercise 468

Dear Mr. Push,

I belong to the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Kaohsiung Medical College.  Your research group has expended considerable effort in treating stroke patients using state-of-the-art instrumentation to solve brain ischemia-related problems.  Although I strongly desire to undergo extensive training from your medical group on the latest technological developments in this area, arranging the required large block of time is impossible given my hectic schedule at work.  However, I would like to arrange for a five-day technical visit with the Head of your Nuclear Medicine Department, Dr. Smith, and his recently formed research group, to learn of the latest medical technologies available to combat brain ischemia. I am especially interested in learning about your successful treatments that have reduced the likelihood of strokes. I am very impressed with the medical software program developed by your research group, which has been successful adopted at UCLA.  At graduate school, I attempted to elucidate the actual mechanism that operates during ischemia.  The ability to integrate the advances of your medical research program with unique aspects of image fusion would significantly reduce the incidence of stroke at our hospital. 


A five-day technical visit to your institution would provide me with useful information on the latest computer software that could greatly reduce examination time.  Specialists in the field of nuclear medicine are well aware that ensuring continuous advances in computer software programs to alleviate brain ischemia depends on aggressive efforts such as those that are currently being made by your research group, to reduce the incidence of failure during brain operations. 


If such a visit is acceptable to you, please let me which dates are convenient.  A suggested itinerary would also be most appreciated, including time for discussion, and a tour of research facilities and accommodation.  Of course, all expenses incurred during the visit will be covered by my organization.  I look forward to your favorable reply.


Sincerely yours,

Larry Wang


Exercise 469

Dear Mr. Wang,

I hope that you received my letter dated May 30, 2004 in which I invited you to accompany representatives of the Taiwan branch office of DISPLAY Corporation to Korea, to explore potential product development opportunities. I hope that you will be present for the signing of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) that would allow our two companies to engage in technical cooperation.


Our R&D Department strives to develop state-of-the-art technologies by continually upgrading our technological capabilities and innovation in product design. Our employees are highly motivated, as evidenced by our recent development of several TFT-LCD products.  Our turning point in corporate growth arose from our ability to remain abreast of the latest technologies that leaders in the field adopted to ensure continued growth, research and development of products, and product innovation. Notable examples include 10.4-inch TFT-LCD products, as well as 2.45W and 3.5W-inch products for digital cameras, pocket TVs and TV cameras. While 5W, 6.4W, 6.5W, 7W, 8W and 10W inch offerings are for DVD, automobile navigation, portable TV, entertainment products and digital TV cameras, the 6.4W and 10.4W inch offerings are for industrial products. 


The signing of this MOU at the Korean headquarters of DISPLAY Corporation would allow our Taiwan branch to participate in a technology transfer to help develop some of the above product technologies.  Given our lack of expertise in developing TFT-LCD materials, this cooperative agreement will ultimately increase our brand awareness and market share. Again, your presence at this signing would be meaningful to both of our organizations given your expertise in this area.


We will provide roundtrip airfare and accommodation during your stay in Korea. Please let us know of a convenient time for the signing of this agreement.  This trip will hopefully strengthen the collaborative ties between our organizations.  Your prompt reply regarding the details of this upcoming visit would be most appreciated.


Sincerely yours,

Mary Lu


Exercise 470

Dear Mr. Smith,

Thank you for allowing us to visit to your laboratory on December 28th.  As I mentioned in earlier correspondence, as a researcher at the Bioimage Laboratories at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology in Taiwan, I am concerned with upgrading the precision of bioimaging instruments, which Taiwan severely lacks. As a global leader in the development of medical instrumentation, your laboratory definitely has much to offer our country as we attempt to increase our research capacity in this area.


Allow me to brief you on our ongoing projects. We are currently engaged in the synchronization firing of neural networks and their aggregation in the dictyostelium system. These nonlinear complex systems have a large degree of freedom in which cooperative effects play a significant role. Often exhibiting unusual and physically interesting phenomena, these nonlinear complex systems are extensively adopted in materials science and exploited in particular technologies used in industrial applications. Hopefully, the opportunity to visit your laboratory and more thoroughly understand our organizational needs will lead to a technology transfer and/or a cooperative venture in the near future.


Having recently received training in how to use advanced computer software to operate the confocal scanning microscope and thus more thoroughly understand nerve cells, I am most impressed with your laboratory’s development of computer software compatible with Linux and IDL. State-of-the-art design program applications could automate a part of the experimental procedure, saving us considerable laboratory resources. We are especially interested in discussing this issue with you, and especially current technologies used to study transgenic animals.


I am confident that the upcoming visit to your laboratory will pave the way for a further exchange of data on the aforementioned program developments. We are intent on establishing a long-term collaborative relationship with your laboratory.  I look forward to meeting you in December.

Sincerely yours,

Jim Lin

Exercise 471

Dear Mr. Wilson,

I apologize for the delay in responding to your fax. In addition to preparing for our hospital’s tenth anniversary, I have been assigned the task of procuring advanced MRI instrumentation for our hospital.  In particular, I am evaluating the feasibility of using the 1.5 Tesla MRI in performing as many patient examinations daily. During such examinations, determining the pulse sequences for various diseases is a priority. Importantly, integrating the MRI and PACS systems depends strongly on the communication gateway. Given the various MRI system designs from manufacturers such as Philips, Siemens and GE, I must determine which design concept most effectively meets our hospital’s needs.

GE has arranged for me to travel to the United States next month and consult its research group on our clinical needs. As I understand, your hospital uses the MRI and PACS systems manufactured by GE; the PACS system in your hospital is the same as that in our hospital. Therefore, on the final two days of my trip, I would like to visit your hospital and learn of your clinical experience of using this instrumentation. I have two specific concerns. First, with respect to the patient’s work-list generated by the PACS server, I am interested in how to connect the broker to the MRI system through the hospital’s Intranet.  Second, with respect to GE’s MRI system in which varying pulse sequences are developed (including multi-IR pulse sequence and DW imaging), I hope to learn of the correct parameter settings and the optimal coil.


I hope that this trip will strengthen the cooperative ties between our hospitals. I am open to any suggestions you may have regarding the itinerary or any materials you would like me to prepare prior to my visit.

Sincerely yours,

Karen Su


Exercise 472

Dear Dr. Curtin,

Thank you for allowing us to observe firsthand some of the latest research at the New York Clinical Cancer Center during our upcoming visit. We also greatly appreciated your agreeing to meet us at the Seasons Hotel at 10:00 on December 20th, where we hope to clarify our concerns regarding research in this area and potential areas of collaboration between our two organizations.


The New York Clinical Cancer (N.Y.C.C) Center is globally renowned for its therapeutic treatment of cancer, especially in the field of radiation therapy. As treatment planning for all forms of cancer has advanced, the N.Y.C.C Center has perfected a therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, cervical cancer and head and neck cancer. In Taiwan, head and neck cancer is the second most prevalent cancer. Unfortunately, irradiation treatment for head and neck cancer may damage normal tissues and cause loss of hearing, highlighting the necessity for precise treatment planning.  NYCC Center has a reputation built on the fact that its cancer patients have the highest survival rate, and receive nurturing care following irradiation treatment. Such care is essential to elevating the quality of living for those patients. Hopefully, our upcoming visit will allow us to exchange relevant experience of not only handling the side effects of treatment, but also providing better nurturing care to patients.


As is well known, a medical technician stands at the forefront of safeguarding a patient’s health and well-being. A hospital offers a diverse array of services and support staff to effectively address the emotional, physical and societal challenges that patients might encounter while they receive cancer therapy. Besides providing state-of-the-art medical care, medical technicians actively encourage patients who are undergoing therapeutic treatment in a highly supportive environment to ensure the most productive outcome.


We hope that this upcoming visit will open doors to future cooperation between our two hospitals.


Sincerely yours,

Mark Wang


Exercise 473

Dear Mr. Slater,


Thank you for your fax dated April 12, 2004. We greatly appreciate the help of Mr. David in arranging our visiting schedule.

Unfortunately, a slight change has been made in our visiting schedule, which will hopefully not inconvenience you. Our colleagues have decided to push back the tour to ensure they have enough time to obtain American visas. Therefore, I was wondering whether May 14-16 would be acceptable to you? If so, Dr. Jones can book his flight to arrive in the United States on May the 14th. Accordingly, could you please provide an itinerary that would allow our colleagues to receive their visas?

I would like to pose the following questions before our discussion on May 14, to give you plenty of time to prepare your responses:
1. What treatment planning software program does your Proton Treatment Center  use to reduce errors in treatment plan data, especially when tumors are in an irregular area?
2. How does your Medical Center laboratory develop or implement a forecasting animal model based on a treatment database?
3. Taiwan will be establishing a proton treatment center in the near future. Specifically, Taiwan needs more long-term health care facilities, providing different services. What standard services does your Proton Treatment Center offer to classify long-term health care facilities in different countries?

If you could provide the travel party with an itinerary, I would like to make a hotel reservation for three single rooms (for two nights) from May 14 to May 16, 2005, and another single room (for one night) from May 15 to May 16, 2005. My colleagues and I will arrive at 9 p.m. on May 14, and will be registered under the names of Mr. Ting, Mrs. Lin, Mr. Lin (May 14 to May 16) and Ms. Chi (May 15 to May 16). We would appreciate your assistance in arranging hotel accommodation. I look forward to meeting you on May 14.

Sincerely yours,

Mary Lin

Exercise 474

Dear Mr. Smith,

Our hospital constantly strives to promote its long-term care facilities and services, and offers medical treatment to meet the demands of the growing elderly population.  They require urgent medical treatment daily, with efficient follow-up services, including discharge planning, respiratory care, nursing facilities and home care as part of a visiting nursing program. Despite our aspirations, our hospital is lacking in many of the above areas, explaining the lack of confidence among patients and their relatives in the quality of medical care offered by Taiwanese hospitals. Given your organization’s extensive experience in implementing long-term care programs, we hope that you could recommend a consultant who could instruct our hospital staff on the following topics.


1.  How do governmental authorities in your country implement long-term care national policies? 

2.    How do practitioners assess the various levels of long-term care services provided to the nation’s elderly?

3.    What measures can be adopted to control the quality of long term care services?

4.    How is national health insurance integrated into the provision of long term care services?


We will provide roundtrip airfare and accommodations during the consultancy period. I advise that the consultant stay here for an additional week or so to enjoy some of the sights that Taiwan has to offer. Once final arrangements are made, please advise us of the consultant’s flight details so that we can meet him/her at the airport.  Please ask your consultant to send us his/her lecture titles and handouts before January 10, 2005 so that we will have sufficient time to make copies and appropriate arrangements. I also need his/her curriculum vitae, including, NAME, DATE OF BIRTH, PLACE OF BIRTH, NATIONALITY, MARITAL STATUS, ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS, PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE, SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS, CURRENT SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES, OTHER SCIENCE-RELATED ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED PUBLICATIONS.


Each lecture will last two hours, and the consultant will be reimbursed with a speech honorarium.  The consultancy period will hopefully begin before February 2005.  We welcome any suggestions or comments that you might have regarding the above proposal.


Sincerely yours,

Suzy Chen


Exercise 475

Dear Dr. Lin:

In light of your renowned research and your contributions in the field of treatment planning systems, we would like formally to invite you to serve as an Invited Speaker at the upcoming Radiotherapy Oncology Conference. We hope your lecture will include a discussion of the current developmental trends in radiotherapy and radiation protection. This conference is to be held at the International Conference Hall at National Taiwan University in Taipei, Taiwan, on April 23, 2004.


The following is a tentative schedule for your visit:
April 23, 2004: Arrival in Taiwan at Chiang Kai Shek International, and transit to hotel accommodation
April 24, 2004: Tour of Proton Therapy Cancer Center

Lecture on a special topic in radiotherapy and radiation protection: 2 to 3 hrs

April 25, 2004: Discussion of how to assess current developments in proton therapy

April 26, 2004: Discussion of how to improve the quality of proton therapy

April 27, 2004: Discussion of the role of radiation protection in proton therapy

April 28 2004: Sightseeing of Taipei’s cultural attractions, as arranged by the faculty and the staff at National Taiwan University
April 28 2004: Return to the United States


Any comments or suggestions regarding the above itinerary or topics of discussion would be most appreciated. If you find the above itinerary acceptable, please send your lecture topics to Dr. Ting, before February 28, 2004. We will then have sufficient time to make copies and appropriate arrangements. I also need your curriculum vitae, including name, date of birth, nationality, academic qualifications, professional experiences, scientific achievements, current scientific activities, other science-related activities, other science-related activities and selected publications.


Please pay in advance for your roundtrip airfare and other incidental expenses, and  hold onto those receipts for reimbursement prior to your departure from Taiwan. According to our government's tax system, a technical service fee is subject to a 20% tax levy. You must make a copy of the receipt and the counterfoil for us to reimburse you for transportation.


Please do not hesitate to let me know if you have any concerns and suggestions. Your contribution to this conference would definitely benefit all of the participants.


Yours sincerely,

Marvin Lu


Exercise 476

Dear Dr. Jones,

We are pleased to hear that you will be returning to Taiwan next month to lecture on recent advances in diagnosing severe ischemia.  The incidence of brain strokes among the younger population has increased in Taiwan.  Many medical technologies have emerged, aimed at resolving salvageable tissue and irreversible damage.  Let me briefly describe the severity of strokes among the younger aged population.  The younger population dominates the country’s economic activities, so increases in ischemia or severe brain strokes strain economic resources.  Additionally, the island’s national defense heavily relies on its youth: all males perform nearly two years of compulsory military service. Moreover, diagnosing cardiac-vessel-cerebral disease requires expensive medical instrumentation, with related medical insurance coverage that is too expensive for most young people. 


In light of your renowned research on the role of SPECT and PET scan in nuclear medicine and pharmaceutical-based nuclear medicine, we would like to invite you to serve as an Invited Speaker at National Taiwan University, which is to be held on December 15, 2004.  Your lecture will hopefully cover recent trends in SPECT and PET-CT technologies.   Your presence at this event would indeed be an honor for us. We will provide a roundtrip airfare ticket and accommodation during your stay in Taiwan.  I hope that you can allot extra time to see some of the cultural wonders of Taiwan.  Please advise us of your flight number so that we can meet you at Chiang Kai Shek International Airport In Taoyuan.  Please also send us your lecture title and outline, along with references, so that we will have sufficient time to make copies.    I look forward to hearing from you soon. 


Sincerely yours,   

Christi Fung       


Exercise 477

Dear Dr. Chang,
Quite some time has passed since you visited our laboratories in June of 2004. I hope that all is going well at your institute. With regard to the scientific and non-scientific collaboration between China and Taiwan, R.O.C., as outlined in our signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between our two organizations on research into traditional Chinese medicine-related topics, the time seems right for the Yuanpei University of Science and Technology Research Institute and National Tsing Hua University to begin collaborative activities.  As I mentioned in our earlier conversation, we could begin by exchanging scientific experts. I would thus like to propose the following.

Please recommend one scientific expert to serve as a short-term consultant at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology.   Naturally, we would like someone whose expertise is highly relevant to the following subjects.


1. Proficiency in the latest technologies related to traditional Chinese medicine.

2. Solid background in designing and integrating approaches to facilitating commercial applications of traditional Chinese medicine.


This expert must also be fluent in English and Chinese (and hopefully have a fundamental grasp of the Taiwanese dialect).  We hope that he/she will be able to lecture on the following topics during his or her roughly two-week stay at our laboratory.


1.  Recent advances in research on Chinese herbal medicine at Yuanpei University of

    Science and Technology (2 hours)
2.  Technological advances in traditional Chinese pharmacology (3 hours)
3.  Introduction to chemical components in Chinese herbal medicine (3 hours)
4.  GC mass machine-related applications in Chinese herbal medicine


We will offer a round-trip airfare from China to Taipei, and accommodation in Taiwan during the consultancy period. An honorarium will also be provided for the seminars. If you have such a person available or if you have any comments regarding this proposal, please let us know at your earliest convenience.


Sincerely yours,

Marty Wang


Exercise 478


Dear Dr. Lin,

Quite some time has passed since you visited our laboratories in December 2004. I hope you can come to our laboratories again.  Once the schedule has been finalized, I will reserve a hotel room for you. The average price of a single room in Hsinchu ranges from US$ 100 to US$ 150.

If you decide to come, please purchase your roundtrip ticket (business class) in advance and save the receipt for reimbursement. I should also mention that Taiwan’s government levies a technical service fee tax of 20%.

During your stay, we hope to consult with you on enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELISA), with particular focus on the following areas;

a.      how to produce the cortisol antibody;

b.     how to produce the HRP;

c.     how to ameliorate a defect in enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELISA);

d.     a brief review of the status of your current research;

e.      explanation of developmental trends in the biotech sector and related manufacturing, and

f.       descriptions of your previous research collaborations with the biotech sector.


For your participation in this event, we will offer round-trip airfare from New York to Taipei, as well as accommodation in Taiwan during the consultancy period. An honorarium for the seminars will also be given.

If you have any comments regarding the above proposal or topics to be added for discussion, please let us know at your earliest convenience.

Sincerely yours,

Christine Huang


Exercise 479

Dear Professor Lin,

Given your eminence in the field of marketing, we would like formally to invite you to participate as an Invited Speaker at the upcoming Internet Marketing Symposium to be held at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology (Taiwan) on February 10, 2005. We hope that your lecture will cover recent trends and developments in Internet-based advertising and marketing strategies.


As February is normally a busy month as everyone prepares for Chinese New Year, I would suggest rescheduling the symposium to March 22nd. I advise you to extend your visit until March 26 to give you time to tour some of Taiwan’s areas of natural beauty. 


The organizing committee will provide a roundtrip airfare, hotel accommodation and a speech honorarium for your lecture.  Please let us know as soon as possible whether you will be able to accept our invitation and if this change in dates is acceptable to you. If so, please send us your lecture title and related handouts before December 31, 2004. I will be in touch with you shortly regarding further details of the symposium and travel arrangements. Your contribution to the symposium would definitely benefit all of the participants.


I anxiously look forward to your favorable reply.


Sincerely yours,

John Su


Exercise 480

Dear Professor Coutrakon,

Thank you for agreeing to participate as an invited speaker at the upcoming seminar to be held in the Institute of Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology (YUST) on December 22-31, 2004. As eminent scholars in dosimetry-related research, my academic advisor Professor Hsu, Professor Tung and you, will be the keynote speakers for this event. The seminar will focus on three topics; (a) comparison of microdosimetry spectra and biological efficacy during proton beam treatment; (b) developmental trends in proton therapy, heavy charged particles therapy, fast neutron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy, and (c) clinical experiences of the Proton Therapy Center at Loma Linda University.


A tentative schedule of your visit follows.

Dec. 22, 2004 (Wed): Arrive in Taiwan and meet Mr. Chang at Chiang Kai Shek International Airport for transit to Hsinchu.

Dec. 23, 2004 (Thu): Tour the Institute of Medical Imagery at YUST.

Dec. 24, 2004 (Fri): Tour the Institute of Nuclear Science at National Tsing Hua University.

Dec. 25, 2004 (Sat): Attend the seminar at the International Conference Hall at YUST. Deliver an introductory lecture on cyclotrons and synchrotrons.

Dec. 26, 2004 (Sun): Spend free time visiting cultural attractions in Taipei.

Dec. 27, 2004 (Mon): Attend a seminar in the Radiation Detection Laboratory at YUST.  Deliver a lecture on the current status of proton therapy research.

Dec. 28, 2004 (Tue): Attend a seminar at the Radiation Detection Laboratory at YUST.  Deliver a lecture on a clinical case that involves proton therapy.

Dec. 29, 2004 (Wed): Attend a seminar in the Radiation Detection Laboratory at YUST. Discuss collaborative opportunities in dosimetry-related research between the Proton Therapy Center at Loma Linda University and the Institute of Medical Imagery at YUST.

Dec. 30, 2004 (Thu): Spend free time sightseeing at Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park.

Dec. 31, 2004 (Fri): Return to the United States.


If you have any suggestions regarding the above schedule and lecture topics, please do not hesitate to contact me. The average price of a single room hotel room in Hsinchu is from US$200 to US$250 daily. Keep your receipts so that we can reimburse you prior to your departure from Taiwan.  I look forward to meeting you.


Sincerely yours,

Connie Li


Exercise 481

Dear Mr. Curtin,

Thank you for accepting our invitation to come to Taiwan for consultation on our latest research efforts.  I was most impressed with the lecture you delivered during The Annual Meeting of Radiology Therapy in 1998. Your address to members of The Association of Radiology Technologists of the Republic of China will be a major highlight of the upcoming event. I am responsible for arranging the details of your visit.


The following is a tentative schedule for your upcoming visit to Taiwan.

1/10: Arrive at the Chiang Kai Shek International Airport in Taoyuan for transit to the 

     Hyatt Hotel in Taipei.

1/11: Meet with Dr. Chen and myself at 10:00 am in the hotel lobby.

1/12: Deliver the keynote speech at the Annual Meeting of The Association of Radiology Technologists of the Republic of China.

1/13: Tour the northern coast of Taiwan and enjoy some traditional Chinese tea.

1/14: Lecture the staff and researchers at the Institute of Medical Imagery at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology on recent advances in IMRT for breast cancer and head and neck cancer.

1/15: Return to the United States on China Airlines at 3:00 pm.


We are interested in your recent research on the latest advances in IMRT for breast cancer as well as head and neck cancer.  We also hope that we will have sufficient time to discuss advanced cancer therapeutic treatments.  In particular, we will raise the following questions during our meeting.

1.     Could you share your experiences of diagnosing and treating cancer at Stanford University?

2.     In what ways do the latest advances in IMRT represent improvements over other therapeutic planning systems?

3.     What are the clinical implications for implementing the latest advances in IMRT when treating breast and head and neck cancer?


I hope that the above questions will give you a clearer idea of our intention to improve medical services at our hospital and implement a state-of-the-art therapeutic planning system.


Sincerely yours,

Donald Wang


Exercise 482

Dear Dr. Kawasaki,

Recognizing your distinguished contributions in the field of IMRT, we would like formally to invite you to participate as an Invited Speaker at the upcoming meeting of the Chinese Association of Radiological Technologists. We hope that your lecture will include a discussion of the latest developments in radiation treatment used in IMRT.  We will provide a roundtrip airfare and accommodation during your stay. I suggest you to stay here for one week to enjoy some of the sights that Taiwan has to offer. Please advise us of your flight number so that we can meet you at the airport.


Thank you for your faxed response regarding cooperation between our two organizations. We generally agree with your proposal. However, I would suggest that you visit in February 2005 because we are usually quite busy during the month of January in preparation for Chinese New Year. A tentative agenda for Dr. Brown's visit is as follows.


Feb. 6, 2005 (Sun): Arrive in Taiwan at Chiang Kai International Airport and meet colleagues for transit to hotel

Feb. 7, 2005 (Mon): Meet with CART staff members and discuss Dr. Kawasaki’s schedule.

Feb. 8, 2005 (Tue): Consult with staff of Radiation Treatment Laboratory on reciprocity-related topics.

Feb. 9, 2005 (Wed): Lecture on quality control for IMRT.

Feb. 10, 2005 (Thu) to Feb. 11, 2005 (Fri): Enjoy a tour of cultural and historical sites in Taiwan, arranged by staff members.

Feb. 12, 2005 (Sat): Discuss potential collaborative activities of our two organizations in the area of radiation treatment. Feb. 13, 2005 (Sun): Return to Japan


The above itinerary and consultation topics are only tentative.  We welcome your feedback if you feel any changes should be made. Any comments or suggestions regarding the aforementioned proposal would be greatly appreciated. If the proposal is acceptable, please send us your presentation topics and curriculum vitae as soon as possible.


Sincerely yours,

Jessamine Su


Exercise 483

Dear Mr. Armstrong,

Thank you for agreeing to serve as an invited speaker at the upcoming marketing seminar to be held at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology on March 9, 2005. The seminar will concentrate on (a) effective management strategies to achieve marketing goals and (b) advanced product development strategies and the product life cycle. A brief outline of the seminar is as follows.




Morning 9 am - noon

Afternoon 1:30 pm – 4:30 pm

Evening 7 pm – 9 pm

January the 3rd (Monday)

Overseas and local scholars arrive for registration


Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 4th (Tuesday)

First lecture:  Rey Chow

First lecture:  Nancy Armstrong

Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 5th (Wednesday)

Second lecture:  Rey Chow

Rey Chow responds to questions: chaired by Shi Pi-fang and Wu Chen-zu

Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 6th (Thursday)

Third lecture:  Nancy Armstrong speech

  Nancy Armstrong responds to questions:  chaired by Shi Pi-fang and Wu Chen-zu

Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 7th (Friday)

First lecture:  Meaghan Morris

First lecture:  Kaja Silverman

Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 8th (Saturday)

Free activity

Taiwanese Film Festival

January the 9th (Sunday)

Conclusion and Adjournment

Taiwanese Film Festival

The organizing committee will provide a roundtrip airfare (business class), hotel accommodation during your stay and a speech honorarium for each lecture.  Let me know if you have any questions regarding the above itinerary.  Thank you again for your participation this event. Your contribution will definitely benefit all of the participants.


Sincerely yours,

Shane Huang


Exercise 484

Dear Professor Daming,
Given your celebrated research and contributions in the field of medical quality management, we would like formally to invite you to participate as an Invited Speaker at a symposium to be held in Taiwan on current trends in medical quality management. 
The symposium will be held in the International Conference Hall of the Municipal WanFang Hospital in Taipei on January the 15th, 2005. A suggested schedule for the upcoming symposium is as follows.






Professor Daming delivers the opening address.


A discussion is held on the systematic monitoring of medical quality systems


Roundtable discussion (Q&A)




Lecture on the role of medicine and disease in providing quality care


Roundtable discussion (Q & A)




Lecture on a system for monitoring health insurance premiums


Roundtable discussion (Q & A)


Lecture on medical quality control and patient security


Roundtable discussion (Q & A)




Lecture on recent trends in Taiwanese medical quality control


Final roundtable discussion (Q & A)




We will provide a roundtrip airfare and accommodation during your stay. I suggest you that stay in Taiwan following the end of the symposium to enjoy some of the natural and cultural wonders that the island offers. Once you have confirmed your trip, let us know your flight details so we can meet you at the airport.


Please send me your lecture title and related handouts by December 30th, 2004, so that we will have ample time for translation. Also, please send us your curriculum vitae, including your name, date of birth, nationality, marital status, academic qualifications, professional experiences, scientific achievements and selected publications.


I look forward to seeing you.


Sincerely yours,

Jeannie Lin


Exercise 485


Dear Mrs. Perez,                                                   


Thank you for your positive reply to our inviting Dr. Kanbinsky as a guest speaker at the PIDA technical seminar on current trends in laser technology.  A tentative agenda for this upcoming trip is as follows.

Jan. 30, 2005 (Sun): Dr. Kanbinsky and Mrs. Kanbinsky arrive at Chiang-Kai Shek International Airport

(Flight details:  CX461, 21:00)

Jan. 31, 2005 (Mon):       Meet with PIDA employees and discuss

seminar topics

Feb. 1, 2005 (Tue):   Deliver lecture on current trends in display technologies
Feb. 2, 2005 (Wed): Deliver morning lecture on difficulties with, and solutions to 

                    problems of producing blue light


Deliver afternoon lecture on laboratory achievement

Feb. 3, 2005 (Thu): Deliver morning lecture on TFT-LCD panel applications 

Deliver afternoon lecture on a special topic

Feb. 4, 2005 (Fri):  Deliver morning lecture on LED - backlight sources for 

                    cellular phones

Participate in afternoon panel discussion

Feb. 5, 2005 (Sat.):          Sightseeing (arranged by PIDA staff members)

Feb. 6, 2005 (Sun): Sightseeing (arranged by PIDA staff members)

Feb. 7, 2005 (Mon):  Visit PIDA at Ming Chuan E. Rd., Taipei,


Feb. 8, 2005 (Tue):        Meet with PIDA president Dr. Shih on future

                                cooperative opportunities 

Feb. 9, 2005 (Wed)         Dr. Kanbinsky and Mrs. Kanbinsky return to Holland

                                (CX759, 12:00)


The schedule and topics can be modified if necessary. Any comments or suggestions regarding this proposal would be greatly appreciated. If the proposal is acceptable, please send us the content of your presentation and your curriculum vitae.



Sincerely yours,

Jim Wu


P.S.: Options for the entertainment program: Feb. 8 will be Chinese New Year, so we strongly recommend that Dr. Kanbinsky and Mrs. Kanbinsky stay for at least two days to experience traditional Asian culture firsthand.


Exercise 486

Dear Dr. Satty,

As a graduate student at the Institute of Business and Management at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, I am very interested in your research on correlation data. Given your pioneering work on decision theory, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP), I have read many of your published articles and am well aware of your more than 12 books on these topics. I particularly enjoyed your articles, "Decision Making—The Analytic Hierarchy and Network Processes (AHP/ANP)", "Fundamentals of the Analytic Network Process: Dependence and Feedback in Decision-Making with a Single Network", "Theory of the Analytic Hierarchy and Analytic Network Process—Examples Part 2.2" and "Decision-making with the AHP: Why is the Principal Eigenvector Necessary?". 


As is well known, AHP has not only been extensively used in decision making in business, industry and government, but has also been often applied to multi-criteria decision problems that are large-scale and multiparty-oriented.  ANP has played a major role in various decisions, involving benefits, costs, opportunities, potential risks and the forecasting of outcomes.

I am interested in the following.

1.     AHP decision-making procedures adopted in business to achieve success;

2.     Some of the assumptions you made when deriving the AHP model;

3.     The relationship between AHP and ANP.


I would also appreciate your sending me the first article that you wrote on AHP.


Thank you in advance for your kind assistance.


Sincerely yours,

Ashley Wu


Exercise 487

Dear Ms. Beatrice,

I listened intently to your recent lecture entitled,  ”Nurse Staffing, Organizational Characteristics and Patient Outcome” at the symposium held in Taiwan on March 24 26, 2004. I was fascinated with the issues you raised about mortality/failure to rescue, length of stay LOS, infection rates, pressure ulcers, falls, post-surgery complications, patient satisfaction, model of care and nursing considerations. As you know, efforts to ensure quality health care and patient safety have led to the establishment of health care systems worldwide. In such systems, while nurses are indispensable in significantly reducing the likelihood of clinical errors, shortages in nursing personnel threaten quality care and patient safety. For instance, low nurse-patient ratios are linked to higher mortality rates. Although such data for Taiwanese hospitals are scarce, I am actively engaged in researching related topics.


Could you pass on to me pertinent data regarding the adverse impact of nursing shortages on health care in the United States? I would be delighted to send you any pertinent data from Taiwan as part of an exchange of information.


Thank you in advance for your careful consideration. I look forward to your favorable reply.


Sincerely yours,

Matt Fung


Exercise 488

Dear Professor Jones,

I was very impressed by your lecture last month at the Intellectual Capital Measurement Symposium in Taipei. Having carefully read the article, ”Intellectual Capital Measurement: Introducing and Comparing Various IC Measurements”, which you published in the conference proceedings, I was motivated to write to you for further details around particular points.


I am pursuing a Master’s degree in the Institute of Business Management at Yuanpei University of Science and Technology. My Master’s thesis is on measuring the intellectual capital of certain enterprises.  As Taiwan’s industrial infrastructure is being transformed into a hi-tech infrastructure, an increasing fraction of companies’ capital is intellectual, and is intangible. This fact explains the urgency to measure the intellectual capital value of hi-tech firms. This area of research is in its infancy in Taiwan and, hopefully my work will contribute to this evolving field. I was wondering whether you could send me literature or materials in the following areas.

A brief introduction to intellectual capital;

A summary of previous efforts to measure intellectual capital;

A brief introduction of the intellectual capital valuation system in the United States;

A brief introduction to the financing mechanism adopted in the United States;

A brief introduction to financing mechanisms in other countries;

A brief summary of future trends in intellectual capital


My graduate school research focuses on intellectual capital of on-line gaming companies in an attempt to identify its essential components. I am especially interested in adopting the perspective of a loaning bank institution to assess the intellectual capital assets of an on-line gaming company and, then, to compare the intellectual capital of a bank with that of such a company.


I hope that you will be able to provide the above information.  Also, if you find my area of research compatible with that of yours, perhaps we could collaborate in some way in the near future.  I would be more than happy to provide you with pertinent data regarding Taiwanese companies.  Thank you in advance for your kind assistance. I look forward to our future cooperative efforts.


Sincerely yours,

Mary Wang


Exercise 489

Dear Dr. Kandinsky,                                      

How have you been lately? I hope that your stay in Taiwan allowed you to experience the difference between Asian and European cultures.  While recently perusing your association’s website, I became intrigued with the area of exhibition management skills. As you are well aware, PIDA holds several widely attended exhibitions, including OPTO Taiwan (since 1980, with over 700 exhibitors and 50,000 international visitors annually) and Computex (since 1976, with over 2,000 exhibitors and 300,000 visitors annually). I have recently been transferred to the Exhibition Department as Chief Operations Manager.


While working for CMP Taiwan, I coordinated several exhibitions at PIDA, allocating exhibition booths, constructing the booths, forwarding materials, and making travel arrangements. However, I lack expertise on the management side, such as in planning and budgeting. Hopefully, this training program will enable me to solve some of our current problems, such as tightening budget constraints.


The preliminary program schedule on the Internet includes a guide to the exhibited technologies, which is unnecessary from my perspective since all of the participants are senior professionals in this field. However, special events, selected brand image trade shows –to which particular brands are invited, could be highlighted in this program schedule, as such events will be of greatest benefit to the participants.  Could you please send me a detailed program schedule, so that I can more completely understand the event before it is held?


Thank you in advance for your kind assistance and I look forward to receiving your positive reply.


Sincerely yours,

Mary Li


Exercise 490

Dear Dr. Chen,

By designating ABC as my primary interest area in ASME and having received the ABC Newsletter for quite some time, I realize that CGFM could resourcefully support my professional interest in oligomeric proanthocyanidins, which are water-soluble polyphenolic tannins that are present in the female inflorescences (up to 5% dry wt) of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus). Humans are exposed to hop proanthocyanidins through their consumption of beer. Previous studies have characterized proanthocyanidins from hops in terms of their chemical structure and their in vitro biological activities. Chemically, these proanthocyanidins consist mainly of oligomeric catechins, ranging from dimers to octamers, with minor amounts of catechin oligomers that contain one or two gallocatechin units. Additionally, the chemical structures of four procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3 and B4) and one trimer, epicatechin-(4β→8)-catechin-(4α8)-catechin (TR), were elucidated using mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and chemical degradation. When tested as a mixture, the hop oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PC) were found to be potent inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity. Among the oligomers tested, procyanidin B2 was the most inhibitory of nNOS activity. Procyanidin B3, catechin and epicatechin were non-inhibitory against nNOS activity. PC and the individual oligomers were all strong inhibitors of 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidation of LDL, with procyanidin B3 displaying the highest antioxidant activity at 0.1 μg/mL. Moreover, the catechin trimer (TR) exhibited antioxidant activity that was more than one order of magnitude greater than that of α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid on a molar basis.


Given my above research interests and your expertise in this field, could you send me introductory information on your laboratory’s current efforts in these areas? Based on our mutual interests, we are interested in pursuing collaborative activities with your research organization. I look forward to hearing from you.


Sincerely yours,

Max Wang


Exercise 491

Dear Dr. Stevens,

Allow me to introduce myself. I am a graduate student at the Proton Radiation Treatment Center, which is similar to Loma Linda University’s Medical Center (LLUMC). I have received a Master’s degree in Medical Imagery from Yuanpei University of Science and Technology and, during that period, served in a seven-month practicum internship at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital in Linkou in central Taiwan. I am interested in assessing the quality of proton radiotherapy. Given its global reputation, LLUMC represents an ideal environment in which I could pursue my professional interests. The Proton Radiation Treatment Center is tentatively planning to establish a national high dose exposure measurement laboratory in Taiwan. I am interested in the proton accelerator, the beam transport system, the gantry, the nozzle and the patient positioning system.


Once established, this laboratory will study the effect of dose on relatively heavy particles, such as protons, their chemical characteristics, dose distribution, radiation protection, treatment quality assessment and biological effects. Could you send me information on how to conduct such work? We are also interested in pursuing collaborative research activities with your Center. Having discussed the contents of your proton radiotherapy training course with my colleagues, we have reached the following conclusions.
1. We hope to form a radiation protection study group.
2. We hope to enhance our technical knowledge of proton radiotherapy, particularly of dose measurement and operator training, radiation shield design and instrument maintenance.

If convenient, would you please send a detailed list of the maintenance components available at your Center, such as those on the attached page?  I would greatly appreciate your comments and suggestions regarding the above proposal. Thank you in advance for your careful consideration. I look forward to our future cooperation.

Sincerely yours,

Lucy Lin



Writing Effective Marketing Materials                    Unit One   Forecasting Market Trends  預測市場趨勢


Exercise 571

Situation 1

E-learning in Taiwan has recently emerged as a highly promising learning medium for enhancing traditional classroom instruction. For example, e-learning eliminates     time constraints and space limitations or faced by classroom instruction. Another strength of e-learning is its ability to construct personal learning environments.   Internet-based English learning websites are a notable example.  Such websites commonly adopt the sharable content object reference model (SCORM), which emphasizes reusability, accessibility, durability and interoperability.  Successful adoption of the SCORM standard has significantly reduced the temporal and spatial constraints faced by e-learners.  Unsurprisingly, recent statistics indicate strong growth in e-learning.  For instance, in 2003, the e-learning market in the United States generated revenues of US$ 400,000,000, and the compound annual growth rate for e-learning revenues is predicted to reach 20.7% from 2002 to 2007.  In sum, e-learning represents a highly promising area for digital content applications.  Commercial strategies involving Internet-based English learning websites thus are receiving increased attention.  Successful commercialization requires prioritizing market orientation, making teaching design and pedagogical content a primary concern. Interactive websites enable learners to enhance their competitiveness in school and at work. Successful learning websites adopt the latest information technologies while integrating the expertise of multidisciplinary professionals. For instance, several Internet-based English learning websites employ professionals in art design, information technology, marketing and curriculum design. Since potential revenues increase with market size, Internet-based English learning websites should compete not only for the Taiwan market, but also for the Greater China market. E-learning approaches and related expertise can also be applied for developing asynchronous learning and vocational training websites.


Exercise 572

Situation 2

Since the establishment of the National Health Insurance scheme in 1995 and the National Health Information Network (HIN), medical-oriented information technology has been extensively adopted in clinical practice, as evidenced by widespread information system outsourcing.  An increasing number of hospitals and medical institutions purchase commercially produced medical information systems or related components.  There is increasing reliance on information technology firms to design medical information systems and software. However, creating medical software involves several complex issues such as effectively integrating information. While information technology firms can develop software to match individual hospital needs, integrating future applications into existing systems can be problematic. Computerization of hospital operations increased from 28% in 1994 to 57% in 1996. Available medical information systems include medical management systems, medical Intranet systems, Internet-based medical systems and electronic charts. According to Information Security Technical Report (Vol.1, No3), the Outsourcing Institute forecast annual expenditures on outsourcing by organizations in the United States at $100 billion dollars. Information technology (IT) outsourcing accounted for 40% of this total, or $40 billion dollars. The US information industry outsourced over $US 1,755,000,000 to the medical services sector in 2001, increasing to $US 2,809,000,000 in 2005. As evidenced by an average annual compound growth rate of 12.5%, information systems outsourcing in the medical services sector in the United States is clearly growing.  The largest area for outsourcing continues to be information technology.  The items most likely to be outsourced are       hardware maintenance, training, applications development, re-engineering and mainframe data centers. Therefore, the main areas in terms of marketing and     direct sales to companies are servers, software applications, maintenance, networks, desktop systems and end-user support items.



Exercise 573

Situation 3

The biotech sector has emerged as one of the main areas of industrial growth in the new century owing to its profound impact on human quality of life. As part of its efforts to prioritize this area in national development strategies, the Taiwanese government has offered numerous incentives for investment in and development of this industry, making the industry a potential engine of sustained economic growth.  In the biotech sector, examination reagents, medical supplies and medicaments are all key areas for development. Additionally, the SARS crisis in 2003 heightened concerns over Taiwan’s inability to effectively prevent epidemics and treat infected patients. Efforts in drug and vaccine development following the SARS epidemic demonstrated the increased attention being paid to biotechnology. Besides raising awareness of the need to effectively prevent diseases or develop a successful vaccine, the SARS crisis emphasized the need to promote immunity in the community.  While biotechnology efforts in Taiwan are focused on the pharmaceutical industry, the local market scale is small owing to limited success in penetrating the household market, as evidenced by the lack of research and development capabilities, incomplete clinical research and product trials, as well as the daunting regulations governing the use of specific drugs. To foster its competitiveness, the biotechnology sector should strengthen its research capabilities, develop patented technologies and attract biotechnology professionals with expertise in multidisciplinary fields.


Exercise 574

Situation 4
Established in 2000, the Taipei Smart Card Corporation (TSCC) was set up by cooperation among the Taipei City Government, the Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation, 13 private bus companies, TAIPEIBANK, Mitac Inc., Taishin International Bank, and various others. TSCC has implemented a contact free smart-card ticketing system for buses, the metro and public off-road car parks in Taipei. The establishment of TSCC marks a milestone for intelligent transport systems in Taiwan.  In the future, TSCC will expand its services to other areas. Unlike the conventional magnetic card, EASYCARD is the first IC card for use in mass transportation in Taiwan.  EASYCARD transactions are executed wirelessly through memory IC chips and induction circuits implanted in the card.  With features of large capacity, durability, speed, accuracy and security, EASYCARD enables prompt transactions and has a long lifetime. EASYCARD frees passengers from carrying coins or tokens, or making repetitive ticket purchases.  Additionally, transfer rides do not require advance ticket validation, thus enhancing user convenience.  EASYCARD conveniently combines payment for several transport modes into one ticket. Finally, EASYCARD represents reduced traffic congestion, as public transport utilization rates increase in response to improved service quality. 


Exercise 575

Situation 5

Market demand for chemotherapy medicine has expanded owing to the increasing incidence of cancer, accelerating research efforts to develop more effective treatments. Besides chemotherapy for treating and preventing cancer, many food products with anti-cancer claims have recently been marketed.  Public fear of cancer has led to the popularization of preventive measures. For example, individuals who wish to prevent cancer are encouraged to avoid excessive drinking and smoking, get sufficient sleep, exercise, eat a nutritionally balanced diet and avoid greasy food. Additionally, several biotech firms are developing foods with anti-cancer properties.  Successful product commercialization will undoubtedly yield numerous benefits.  Cancer treatments include a) physical treatment, through organ removal and subsequent radiotherapy b) chemotherapy, which normally occurs after physical treatment and aims to remove all remaining cancer cells.  Regarding trends in the development of chemotherapy medicine, more effective chemotherapy drugs developed in the future may be able to prevent metastasis in cancer cells.  Such drugs would greatly reduce patient discomfort and the adverse effects of physical treatment during cancer therapy.


Exercise 576

Situation 6

Continuous technological advances have popularized the installation of digitalized consumer products in automobiles in Taiwan: from telematics to               rear seat entertainment systems. Automobiles are gradually becoming communications centers, with future automobile design anticipated to integrate media entertainment with the vehicle computer system. Rear seat multimedia entertainment systems are a highly promising area for further technological development and are attracting increased commercial interest.  The MARCH car brand was launched in Taiwan in 1993, largely owing to the technological limitations of its Japanese parent factory in manufacturing mini-sized cars.  Another local car brand, Matiz, from the Formosa Automobile Corporation, focuses on cars with less than 1000CC horsepower, with a diverse array of color combinations.  Meanwhile, the Solio car brand from Suzuki is intended to appeal to younger car drivers with its ethnic appeal and numerous exterior accessories, such as fins.  As for retail sales, June is generally a slow month, with the most profitable period running from September through to December or January.  The average car owner purchases a new model every ten years.  According to January 2005 statistics on automobile sales from the Taiwan Transportation Vehicle Manufacturers Association, the leading car brands in Taiwan in terms of production and sales are Suzuki (45%), Nissan (26%), Formosa (15%) and Hyundai (13%). Japanese brands thus are highly successful in Taiwan, with their emphasis on catering to individual preferences and their recreational appeal.  Restated, an appealing car exterior and large variety of interior accessories with driving and entertainment functions are the foundations of the commercial success of these Japanese car brands.



Unit Two Describing Product or Service Development 產品或服務研發


Exercise 577

Situation 1

With its strong emphasis on using natural materials, the German mattress brand Elsa has ranked highly in consumer evaluations since entering the Taiwan market in 2004. Established in Germany in 1924, Elsa has strived to satisfy customers for decades.  The cold and damp winters in Taiwan make the island an ideal market for the diverse products Elsa manufactures, including woolen carpets, blankets, socks, stockings and nightclothes. The main competitor of Elsa in the Taiwan market is Simmons Mattress Company of the United States, which began mass producing spring beds in 1876 and built up a firm position in the Taiwan market. Simmons is the leader in its     market niche, and focuses on eliminating the stress of shopping for mattresses by combining innovation with comfort.  Simmons seeks to assure customers that they are purchasing a quality mattress, and also to convince them quality sleep is essential for dealing with the turbulence of daily life.  For individuals who have trouble sleeping, Simmons offers quality mattresses that often exceed consumer expectations.  Elsa faces a challenge in competing with a well entrenched rival like Simmons. Knowledge is a key concern. Rather than merely selling quality mattresses, Simmons educates consumers to maximize their sleeping experience and ensure a health lifestyle.  In 2005, Elsa plans to team up with Teco Company and offer consumers a 50% discount off of an Elsa mattress when purchasing a Teco humidifier.  Given the damp climate in Taiwan, consumers with a humidifier in their bedrooms should sleep more comfortably and healthily. Such a partnership should help improve Elsa’s position in this highly competitive market.


Exercise 578

Situation 2

Long term care emerged in Taiwan in the late 1980s. A turning point occurred in 1997 with the passage of the Senior Citizens Welfare Law, which placed unregistered healthcare institutes under pressure and eventually saw them abolished by 2000. This legislation ushered in the rapid growth of institutional-based organizations from 1998, with stable growth expected well beyond 2000. Competition among institutional-based long term care facilities currently is fierce.  A recent market survey indicated that while only around 20% of all disabled elderly in Taiwan receive institutional-based care, 30% of the disabled elderly in Taiwan require such care (Department of Health, 1997). This discrepancy represents a market demand of at least 18,000 individuals. To meet this demand, Taiwan has relied on small-scale institutional care facilities. Such facilities have become popular for four reasons. First, family members without professional training account for 69% of all care providers for the disabled elderly in Taiwan.  This situation creates high emotional and financial stress, and providing professional treatment to the disabled elderly can greatly alleviate family tensions.  Second, the annual growth rate of disabled elderly in Taiwan is nearly 20%. Third, modern lifestyles and urbanization have significantly transformed familial patterns, as reflected by the tendency of adults to live apart from their parents and offer their parents less assistance than previously. Meanwhile, increasing daily pressures in daily life, family interactions, and the         growing female workforce have reduced numbers of non-professional caretakers for the disabled elderly.  Consequently, professional care givers are increasingly important for meeting demand.  Fourth, a clear discrepancy in supply of institutional-based long term care facilities exists between urban and rural areas. While demand for such facilities is lower in rural areas, marketing opportunities still exist for smaller scale facilities.


Exercise 579

Situation 3     

Wound care treatment is crucial in nursing care, and involves the assessment of wound severity and appropriate treatment. Increasing life expectancies globally over the past three decades, a growing elderly population and the eradication or alleviation of many systemic diseases have all contributed to the urgent need to clinically treat patients with chronic illnesses, especially those with difficult to heal wounds. While striving to heal patients with wounds by adopting                           the latest therapeutic treatment strategies, medical personnel benefit not only patients, but also their relatives and society as a whole.  Reducing wound healing times reduces fatality rates, inhibits disease growth during the early stages,        alleviates the burden on relatives in terms of manpower and financial resources and reduces hospital expenditures, ultimately reducing already strained National Health Insurance resources. Statistics demonstrate the severity of this problem.  In the United States alone, over 1 million patients seek treatment annually for chronic wounds, with treatment costs totaling several hundred million dollars. Expenses associated with length of hospital stay and the extent of wound care treatment are valuable indexes of the severity of the wound treatment problem.  Thus, Taiwanese hospital administrators are increasingly emphasizing the need to reduce wound treatment associated costs in clinical practice. A recently developed wound management procedure, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), applies negative pressure to a wound through a porous, open-cell foam that fills the wound cavity. The advantages include rapid wound healing, reduced pain, shorter hospital stays, lower medical costs and less need for nursing care. This procedure can also be applied to patients with multiple wounds, as well as to recurring wounds suffered by many elderly patients.



Exercise 580

Situation 4

Fast food items are immensely popular among Taiwanese, with instant noodles being no exception. Delicious, convenient, inexpensive and healthy, instant noodles have been a staple food item among Taiwanese for more than four decades. When production of instant noodles in Taiwan began in 1967, the International Food Company from Japan initially dominated the market. However, after Wei Lih Food Manufacturers established a food processing plant in Changhua in 1970, local producers began to gradually erode Japan’s market dominance. Taiwanese manufacturers initially imitated Japanese products, but eventually they began making adjustments to appeal to local tastes, such as adding chicken essence to instant noodles and enclosing seasoning packets that included salt, monosodium glutamate, pepper and other flavorings. With other local enterprises entering the market, including Ve Wong Company, Uni-President Enterprises, Vedan Enterprise Corporation and even the King Car Group, local production of instant noodles gradually matured, and local products gradually captured the dominant market share.  In 2002, after 37 years in business, Taiwanese manufacturers of instant noodles achieved revenues of approximately 3 billion New Taiwanese dollars. According to the 2003 Integrated Consumer Tendency (ICT) report on Taiwanese consumer trends, 15-29 year olds are the biggest consumers of instant noodles. Increasing market demand for diet food products has led to innovations in instant noodles. Furthermore, Taiwan’s recent entry into the World Trade Organization has created opportunities for technology cooperation aimed at better satisfying consumer tastes, enhancing production management practices and improving after-sales service.  Given the above trends, local manufacturers of instant noodles face new opportunities and challenges.


Exercise 581

Situation 5

The Taiwanese economy has grown strong during the past decade, and the average income has now reached $US 13,000. Improved living standards have made Taiwanese more health conscious and recreation-oriented. Although most employees undergo a routine physical examination annually, including blood tests, chest x-ray examinations and heart-lung function testing, such examinations do not accurately reflect the current condition of patients.  Most individuals pay extra for an MRI examination when undergoing their routine physical examination. No longer restricted simply to identifying lesions, MRI examinations have become an effective means of determining the current status of human organs and vessels.   One of the advantages of an MRI exam is that no prior preparations are necessary. Patients can eat normally, continue with their normal daily routines and continue taking any prescribed medications.  Typically lasting from 20 to 45 minutes, depending on the information required by the physician, the procedure simply requires the patient to lie in a supine position and remain still. Patients can be accompanied by relatives in the scan room, and are closely supervised by medical technologists. Additionally, the magnetic chamber includes an intercom system should the patient require. A contrast agent may be administered to enhance the study, but no precautions are necessary. Patients are free to consult with the attending physician or medical technologists to discuss any concerns. Importantly, the examination involves no radiation, with data acquired via other means, which include axial, sagittal and coronal observations.  Hospitals increasingly realize the potential of comprehensive physical examinations for generating revenue, thus reducing pressures on the already strained national health insurance system.


Exercise 582

Situation 6

As a novel radiation therapy and planning system that can increase cure rates for cancer patients, tomotherapy offers the most advanced radiation delivery system available through its enhanced dose modulation and accurate targeting of specific locations.  Tomotherapy allows physicians to verify treatment volumes in advance through 3D imagery via TomoImage scanning, ensuring that treatment fits a therapeutic strategy.  Additionally, this system delivers helical tomotherapy to targets while minimizing damage to healthy tissue, thus optimizing dose delivery for all patients.  Pioneered by Professor Thomas Rockwell Mackie and the mathematician and software engineer Paul J. Reckwerdt at the University of Wisconsin-Madison ten years ago, tomotherapy combines a treatment planning optimizer, a linear accelerator, computed tomography (CT) and a complex    intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT).  Among its unique features, tomotherapy offers precise planning through using a treatment planning optimizer that is easier to use than conventional treatment planning systems.  Moreover, tomotherapy ensures precise positioning through using a unique verification CT to confirm the tumor position before each treatment, enabling precise delivery of the radiation dosage.  Furthermore, tomotherapy also ensures precise delivery of the prescribed dosage to the intended area owing to its ability to combine complex IMRT with spiral delivery, thus concentrating the radiation on the tumor and depositing less radiation in surrounding healthy tissue.  In sum, this therapeutic treatment system is widely anticipated to be adopted among hospital oncology departments to provide enhanced medical care for cancer patients.



Unit Three  Describing a Project for Developing a Product or Service 專案描述

Exercise 583

Situation 1

Despite representing a considerable portion of the game sector, on-line gaming in Taiwan lags behind Korea in terms of development, explaining the            large trade imbalance between the two countries in this industry. Owing to the enormous potential of on-line gaming, the Taiwanese government has added this sector to the priority list of growth areas for national development.  Current government policies aim not only to satisfy domestic demand for on-line games by replacing imported Korean products with innovative local products, but also to develop state-of-the-art globally competitive online games by emphasizing design, manufacturing and testing. Additionally, the government is encouraging two novel promotional strategies.  First, fashionable trends and comic characters that appeal to the key market sector, 13-26 year olds, are adopted in game design and promotion.  Second, new games are promoted together with current comic book series, movies and television programs to raise brand awareness.  Although this strategy requires considerable time investment to promote the connection between the new game and current comic book series, movies and television programs, it offers a means of design and marketing on-line games that appeal to Chinese consumers.



Exercise 584

Situation 2

Before the Taiwanese government initiated the National Health Insurance Program in 1995, 13 different health insurance schemes covered nearly 60% of residents of Taiwan, with the remaining population left to pay for treatment entirely on their own. To effectively address this problem, the                                Council for Economic Planning and Development established a planning committee in 1988 to develop a single mandatory and universal health insurance program. The program took effect in March 1995 after the Legislative Yuan passed the National Health Insurance (NHI) Act.  The NHI Bureau was established to achieve three goals.  First, the NHI Bureau sought to ensure that all Taiwanese residents received insurance coverage. According to the Department of Health of Taiwan, around 96% of all Taiwanese residents had NHI program coverage as of December 1997. Second, the NHI Bureau should improve medical care quality and increase competition among healthcare providers. Unlike under the previous system, under NHI patients can freely select where they receive medical care. Third, by implementing a Global Budget payment system and introducing payment on a per case basis rather than a per-visit basis, the NHI Bureau could help control hospital health care costs and resource utilization efficiency. This approach enabled the economic provision of high quality health care services. In sum, the NHI program has expanded the size and scope of the medical care sector, increased market competitiveness, and created incentives for continuously improving operational efficiency.


Exercise 585

Situation 3

When Real-Sun Information Technology Company entered the medical services sector in Taiwan eight years ago, less than 10% of all hospitals outsourced their information system needs.  However, the establishment of the National Health Insurance scheme in 1995 impelled Taiwanese hospitals to computerize their operations.  Moreover, governmental policy aimed at upgrading the computerized capabilities of hospitals attracted many information technology firms to this    newly emerging market. Consequently, nearly 80 information technology companies invested in the medical information sector, and Internet companies followed them into the market, representing an initial investment of nearly $NT 20,000,000.  Following several company mergers and considerable investment, Taiwan has around 20 domestic information technology firms involved in the medical sector.  The customer base for this sector comprises 2600 clinics and 47 hospitals island-wide. Real-Sun Information Technology Company has recently merged its personnel and resources with another medical software firm to increase its market share.  As domestic medical health networks continue to evolve in this newly emerging market, 40 local firms have been established, while globally there are over 10,000 medical information-oriented websites.  Several websites provide online research capabilities, providing access to electronic journals, disease-related information for diagnostic purposes, on-line queries, examinations, automatic registration functions,      personal health tips and online ordering capabilities. Meanwhile, all Internet-based medical information companies can handle kinesiology and medicine classification-related queries.   Concerns regarding how to protect client information in an IC card format make extracting information from IC card contents for commercial purposes extremely difficult.  Real-Sun has therefore designed IC-based duplicate cards for medical treatment.  As credit cards have become a standard payment method, these duplicate IC cards can be used for medical payments, enabling thousands of clinics to adopt a uniform method of payment processing. 


Exercise 586

Situation 4

As a non-invasive form of nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) is preferable to conventional image reconstruction, which requires filtered back projection software and maximum likelihood expectation maximization software that often produces poor quality images owing to the limited number of photons and the slow convergence of original image data. Pioneered by the mathematicians Hudson and Larkin in 1994, an image reconstruction method based on ordered subset expectation maximization software has been widely adopted in experimental investigations using PET, and involves a fast algorithm enhancing the slow convergence of conventional software. Given the above considerations, hospitals must replace conventional software to produce high quality clinical images. Owing to budgetary constraints, National Health Insurance (NHI) will not cover the expense of this service, making this area a promising source of revenue for hospitals with the necessary technological capacity. Patients that are unwilling to cover the expense of this PET examination themselves, can choose from other less advanced but still high quality procedures subsidized by NHI, such as ultrasound, multi-slice computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. A notable example of such   unsubsidized services is the PET Center of Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, which has served over 4,000 patients over the past two years, generating substantial revenues for the hospital, and thus reducing its reliance on NHI for funding. Each patient pays roughly $US 1,500 for this PET examination. Besides enabling the nuclear medicine departments in Taiwanese hospitals to fill a profitable market niche, this PET software-based medical procedure can eventually replace conventional computer image reconstruction software. Enhanced image reconstruction computer software based on maximizing ordered subset expectations is highly promising in clinical efforts to provide high-quality PET images. Several hospitals are currently developing marketing strategies to make patients aware of such high quality medical treatments.


Exercise 587

Situation 5

As an excellent therapy for lung cancer patients, tomotherapy not only enables precise image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy, but also provides valuable information regarding tumor changes during radiotherapy. Tomotherapy thus represents the future of image-guided IMRT in cancer treatment.  The Cancer Center of National Taiwan University (NTU) utilizes all available resources             to combat cancer. Numerous investigations have demonstrated                 the potential of tomotherapy in many unexplored areas in radiation oncology.  As a compact, cost effective and high precision radiation therapeutic treatment system, tomotherapy includes a primary beam-shield that reduces the operational costs associated with room shielding, an on-board oncology CT system, a rapid inverse planning system with a built-in optimizer, a full network with DICOM input, and a built-in patient scheduler. Taking TomoImage scans before each treatment enables physicians to determine whether a tumor is shrinking. After four or five weeks of treatment, the treatment dosage can be decreased as the tumor size shrinks.   Known as slice therapy because it derives from tomography or cross-sectional imaging, the tomotherapy system resembles a computed tomography system: the patient lies on a bench that moves continuously through a rotating ring gantry. The gantry is fitted with a linear accelerator, which delivers a fan beam of photon radiation as the ring turns. The couch movement combined with the gantry rotation mean that the radiation beam spirals around the patient. Tomotherapy delivers intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using a multileaf collimator.  A recent advance in radiation treatment involves IMRT altering the size, shape and intensity of the radiation beam depending on tumor size, shape and location.  Tomotherapy achieves better     cancer patient survival rates than other therapeutic treatment systems. The Cancer Center at NTU plans to collaborate with two innovators in this field: Professor Thomas Rockwell Mackie, a leading medical physicist, and Paul J. Reckwerdt, an accomplished mathematician and software engineer. Moreover, Tomotherapy Incorporated holds 70 patented technologies in this area, providing a valuable source of information for further understanding advanced applications of the tomotherapy system.   Although some clinicians do not consider tomotherapy a mature technology, preliminary results for treating prostate and lung cancer are encouraging. The precision of tomotherapy offers therapeutic potential for cancer patients ineligible for radiotherapy.


Exercise 588

Situation 6

Medical technology recently has rapidly evolved, as evidenced by the increasing number of technologies available to radiation oncology departments, for example radiation pharmaceuticals and linear accelerators. Given the increasing market demand for advanced cancer therapeutic treatment strategies, according to the National Science Council of the Republic of China, Taiwan, revenues from the radiation oncology sector in Taiwan ranged between $NT 500 million to 1 billion dollars in 2004. Given the large market potential and strong government backing, hospitals with radiation oncology departments have expressed strong interest in adopting the latest technological applications. When creating a new model in this intensely competitive market, instrumentation companies strive to efficiently use available resources and identify effective market strategies. As an effective market strategy for understanding this highly competitive market, the four-point based market strategy can help clinical radiation oncology departments equip management professionals with appropriate and efficient marketing policies. Comprising product, price function, accuracy and promotion, the four-point based marketing strategy focuses on technology differentiation, in which hospital administrators stress how their product lines differ from those of other hospital centers. The price strategy sets prices based on the prices of competing products. Since radiation oncology strongly emphasizes accuracy, related technologies require precise instrumentation. New products face an intensely competitive market, and thus promotion strategies must stress the unique features that differentiate them from other products. Finally, it is important to use the most appropriate agent for marketing purposes. In sum, the four-point based marketing strategy can help prepare radiation oncology departments in Taiwan for an intensely competitive global market that emphasizes state-of-the-art medical instrumentation and professionalism.



Unit Four  Introducing a company  公司或組織介紹

Exercise 589

Situation 1

The Taiwan operations of the German mattress brand ‘Elsa’ were set up in 2004, with aspirations of servicing the entire Asia Pacific region.  Following careful consideration and extensive marketing research, Elsa selected Taiwan as its retail and distribution hub in the Asia Pacific region. The Taiwanese bedding market recently has experienced sales growth, with statistics from the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan revealing revenue growth from NT$ 24,000,000,000 in 1991 to NT$ 59,000,000,000 in 2001.  Besides manufacturing wool and cotton mattresses in Germany, in Malaysia, Elsa also produces emulsion products such as pillows and mattresses.  The excellent emulsion quality and relatively inexpensive labor in Malaysia have allowed Elsa to reduce overhead costs and pass these savings on to consumers in the form of competitive retail prices.  Elsa has been operating in Asia for less than a year, and has sought to emphasize product and service quality via a segmentation marketing strategy involving another brand.  Notably, Elsa views the production of recyclable mattresses as its social responsibility.  Elsa has recently established three divisions: accounting, business and programming. The accounting division coordinates finances, factory operations and logistics, the business division focuses on sales and after sales service, and the programming division devises and implements marketing strategies, as well as coordinating art design projects.  As an administrator in the programming division, Sheila is responsible for new employee orientation and on-the-job training, customer relations management-related practices and marketing strategy design.



Exercise 590

Situation 2

The result of a joint investment by Taiwan Secom Company and Goldsun Development & Construction Company totaling NT$ 495,000,000, Goldsun Express & Logistics (GE&L) Company (formerly Kuo Hsing Transport) was established in 1993 to undertake advanced and fully automated logistics. With a licensed customs office since 2002, the company has ample skilled staff from multi-disciplinary fields, including security, information technology, and construction.  To provide comprehensive logistics services and achieve complete customer satisfaction, GE&L is striving to become an integrated and intelligent distribution center with exceptional customer service.  Well positioned to lead the Taiwanese logistics service sector, GE&L bases its success on state-of-the-art distribution procedures, information technology, automated facilities, highly skilled industrial engineering professionals, third party logistics services, full-range B2B logistics solutions and sound supply-chain management practices.  The company deals in hi-tech products, 3C products, entertainment media (DVD, VCD, VHS), cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, all of which are products for which enterprises tend to outsource distribution services.  GE&L has a strong organizational framework, within which logistics professionals and IT consultants jointly provide a comprehensive and diverse range of logistics services. In these joint efforts, the three-stage client service approach is adopted to ensure customer satisfaction by tailoring offered services based on client needs. This approach uses EIQ analysis (commonly known as volume and variation analysis) to closely monitor the flow of incoming and outgoing goods. Additionally, analyses are performed, including analysis of the industrial characteristics of goods, business transaction requirements, environmental resource planning (ERP), parameter settings and process confirmation for large ERP systems, and linear motion testing. This procedure aims to minimize the influence of logistics services on business transactions during the initial service stage. Furthermore, the three-stage client service approach also considers how controlling inbound or outbound goods and inventory fully complies with the internal control system, ensuring that the logistic needs of customers are managed efficiently.


Exercise 591

Situation 3

As Taiwan’s highest health authority, the Department of Health (DOH) of the Executive Yuan is responsible for administering, supervising and coordinating local health agencies. DOH contributes to maintaining the health of Taiwanese residents by promulgating health-related measures to expedite the provision of convenient and efficient medical services. Promoting a healthy living space in which individuals can fully access quality healthcare services and accurate medical information enables all individuals to take increased responsibility for their well being. Key strategies implemented to achieve the above objective include establishing a National Health Insurance Review Committee to provide guidelines for improving the National Health Insurance system, promoting organizational reengineering by establishing the Bureau of Health Promotion and Bureau of Hospital Management, advancing national health education by establishing the National Health Education Research Group, setting up a modern health care network, enhancing health care for women and the disadvantaged, strengthening emergency medical care, encouraging diversification of hospital operations and, finally, implementing an information-based, nationwide system for preventing communicable diseases. To implement the above strategies, the Hsinchu General Hospital operates 18 outpatient services with a staff of 800, based on the concepts of quality, efficiency and family values. To achieve the objectives of promulgating governmental health care policy and offering quality medical health services to promote physical and mental well being, Hsinchu General Hospital has a bed capacity of 684, with 84 intensive care beds and 600 beds for patients with acute chronic illnesses.


Exercise 592

Situation 4

With more than a century of history, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) symbolizes the evolution of the Taiwanese medical care sector. The hospital has two main buildings, and the western wing was the largest and most modern hospital in Southeast Asia upon its construction in 1898.  Committed to nurturing medical talent and developing outstanding research capabilities, NTUH strives to set precedents for the entire medical community. Given the inestimable value of life and the growth in global health consciousness, NTUH is globally renowned as a premier teaching hospital in Asia.  Regarding the organizational structure of NTUH, decision making is performed by the secretarial department. Meanwhile, the administrative department comprises the financial, personnel, accounting, information technology and other smaller units. Furthermore, the medical departments include the nutritional, pharmaceutical, nursing and aesthetic units, as well as the hepatitis research center.  The medical departments also include various units within the hospital, including three major departments involved in medical radiology.  First, the nuclear medicine department provides radiological images for diagnosis by injecting radiological pharmaceuticals and using advanced methods such as PET. Second, the medical imaging department produces general diagnostic images using x-ray MRI examinations. Third, the cancer therapy center provides therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. NTUH is recognized as an international leader in several fields, especially hepatitis, organ transplantation, nasal and paralegals cancer, liver and stomach cancer therapy and antivenin research.  As a teaching hospital, NTUH stresses education and research as well as medical services. In terms of education, the hospital seeks to foster medical talent in various fields by following a strong medical curriculum. As for research, NTUH integrates the resources of various fields and adopts state-of-the-art equipment to yield optimal research results. Regarding medical services, the hospital focuses on serving patient needs and strengthening its organizational structure. Besides offering nursing home care services, NTUH actively encourages international cooperation to remain abreast of global trends in medicine.


Exercise 593

Situation 5

Committed to advancing the clinical diagnostics sector in Taiwan, Oxford Biosensors Corporation adopts a multidisciplinary approach, employing leading research scientists in electronics, materials science, electrochemistry and enzyme technology. Internationally recognized experts comprise the corporate advisory board, and the corporation draws heavily upon the personnel and resources of Oxford University, which is renowned worldwide for its innovations in electrochemistry and biosensor development. Through successfully commercializing technologies developed in academia using funding from global investment sources, Oxford Biosensors has generated a strong and growing intellectual property portfolio, based on a commitment to product development and broad expertise in biosensor design, development and manufacturing.  Specifically, Oxford Biosensors provides medical diagnostic laboratories with accurate, efficient and inexpensive devices, and is a leader in this field.  Effective healthcare requires accurate data regarding certain biochemical parameters, meaning that biosensors play a crucial role in modern healthcare owing to their specificity, miniaturized size, rapid response and relative inexpensiveness. Bioanalytical procedures are widely anticipated to be increasingly adopted for measuring metabolites, blood cations and gases. Established in 2000 based on technological innovations by Oxford University, the pilot plant manufacturing facility of Biosensors is located in nearby Yarnton, England. As a rapidly growing healthcare diagnostics development company, Oxford Biosensors provides a challenging and stimulating work environment for entrepreneurial individuals committed to constant technological innovation. Company employees have a strong sense of how they can contribute by closely collaborating on results-oriented endeavors.  Oxford Biosensors focuses mainly on electrochemistry and enzyme technology. The electrochemistry program is particularly noteworthy as significant resources have been invested in commercializing biosensor technologies. The technical breakthroughs pioneered at Oxford Biosensors include the development of a diverse range of low complexity, hand-held diagnostic products. For example, the Multisense Dry Enzyme System satisfies consumer demand for rapid and accurate multi-parameter analysis by instantly providing essential diagnostic results.


Exercise 594

Situation 6

Established in 1977, Sinphar Pharmaceutical Corporation became the first pharmaceutical manufacturer in Taiwan to receive both the National Award for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and ISO 9001 accreditation in 1996. Later, in 2002, Sinphar was the only pharmaceutical manufacturer to receive the National Biotechnology & Medical Care Award for both its factory operations and product innovation.  After investing over NT$ 230,000,000, Sinphar constructed the first research and development center in Taiwan to receive ISO 17025 and GLP accreditation. Licensed for operations in July of 2002, with production beginning in October of that year, the 12,000 square feet, five-story facility became a model for integrating domestic and international biotechnology research. An R&D budget of $NT 80,000,000 for 2003, along with further investment of up to $NT 450,000,000 over the next five years demonstrates the commitment of the Sinphar Group to developing state-of-the-art product technologies. Committed to         continuously upgrading business operations, expanding upon patented technological innovations, and ensuring superior product quality, Sinphar utilizes its biotechnology expertise to extract and purify traditional Chinese medicine components in order to create new products for clinical trials and eventual commercialization. A state-of-the-art R&D Center greatly facilitates product technology research. A notable example is its clinical trial facility for Chinese herbal medicine, which applies advanced scientific approaches to extract and purify components of          Chinese herbal medicine and, eventually, to standardize formulations for clinical studies.



Unit Five     Introducing a Division or Department組或部門介紹


Exercise 595

Situation 1

The Educational Training and Orientation Department at China Motors Corporation (CMC) integrates the efforts of human resources personnel, training instructors and library employees. The Department performs specific activities to continuously upgrade the professional skills of company employees through a comprehensive education and training curricula.  First, while closely following the missions and planning strategy of CMC, the Department assesses the talents of employees and recommends ways of better utilizing their professional skills and potential to more effectively respond to the intensely competitive and constantly changing market.  Second, the Department maintains an employee training center to fully orient new employees regarding company operations and equip them with the professional skills necessary to perform daily tasks. The center often consults with its counterparts in industry and government regarding how to improve its operations. Third, the Department maintains a consultation room that allows colleagues to freely discuss professional and personal concerns regarding how to better fulfill their        career aspirations while maintaining a healthy family and personal life.  Finally, the Department maintains a well stocked library containing numerous books, periodicals and multimedia teaching materials, thus encouraging employees to continuously upgrade their reading skills to maintain their professional skills.  Moreover, the Department implements an apprenticeship model in which new employees can work in specific areas under the guidance of more seasoned colleagues, thus fostering an organizational environment of mutual respect.


Exercise 596

Situation 2

In line with corporate goals of enhancing biotechnology product quality, reducing overhead costs and adopting the latest professional technologies, the Sales Department at Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) has adopted an integrated marketing approach that stresses product differentiation. Advanced biotechnology products are widely anticipated to reach commercialization within the next two years. The Biotechnology Division of TSC focuses on developing product technologies and technical expertise in fermentation, extraction, biological reagents, biomedical materials, biopharmaceuticals and in vitro diagnostics. The Division is preparing to install extraction equipment for water and organic solvents, operating lines and packing facilities to manufacture various high value-added products that adhere to FDA standards.  Since research and development, procurement, production, sales and technical services are all integral to corporate success, the organizational structure of TSC is both flexible and highly responsive to market fluctuations.  Given the recent emergence of biotechnology, TSC has invested heavily in developing biotechnology-related technologies to meet expected strong future market demand, as demonstrated by the Taiwanese government policy of encouraging the local private sector to enter this field.  The Sales Department adopts        flexible procedures for determining the core competence and commercial viability of TSC in the biotechnology market, especially in functional foods and cosmetics. Moreover, the Department is committed to educating customers regarding the health benefits of TSC’s biotechnology products.


Exercise 597

Situation 3

In existence for a decade, the Service Division of Goldsun Express & Logistics Corporation (formerly Kuo Hsing Transport) comprises ten employees dedicated to devising and implementing marketing strategies, as well as coordinating customer design projects.  The smallest division in the company in terms of employees, the Service Division also operates a service center, staffed by five service engineers and an engineering assistant, all with undergraduate degrees related to their areas of experience and an average of two years professional experience in the logistics sector.  The Service Division strives to give Goldsun Express & Logistics Corporation a competitive edge in Taiwan’s intensely competitive logistics sector by focusing on customer service, quality management, service quality and customer satisfaction.  Although not directly generating revenue for the company, the Division is still indispensable in daily operations, integrating the efforts of other divisions to execute a cohesive business strategy based on customer relations management-related practices.  For instance, logistics services require punctual product delivery to satisfy customers.  In terms of daily operations, the Service Division handles electronic-based orders, current accounts, delivery, stock inventory control, stock inventory-related data and delivery of hi tech products to wafer fabs and retail shops.  Products include 3C products such as mobile phones, personal computers (PC), PC peripherals, personal digital assistants (PDA), PDA peripherals and entertainment media products, including DVDs, VCDs, CDs and VHS tapes.  The Division also supervises delivery of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products to regional hospitals, medical centers and department stores.


Exercise 598

Situation 4

Established in 1988 as a producer of quality motors, Yuan Electrical Machinery Company has accumulated extensive experience in developing high-accuracy instrumentation and advanced machinery to meet diverse consumer needs.  The company closely collaborates with microcomputer machinery manufacturers and machinery calibrators to achieve accuracy and precision.  Additionally, the company adopts a closely supervised quality control inspection system in manufacturing to ensure that its motors have high torsion, low noise emissions and long life.  Machinery is exported mainly to Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United States and other southeast Asian countries. Led by a chief administrator in charge of quality control, an administrative staff of 30 employees focuses on five to six quality control-related items. Group leaders coordinate the efforts of employees in their groups by encouraging strong cooperation through constant training to drill members on independent problem solving skills.  The Administrative Department is mainly staffed by university graduates with backgrounds in quality control and related fields, with several also having masters and doctoral degrees in fields related to enhancing product quality.  The Department recruits primarily from nearby universities and technological institutes, offering recent university graduates numerous management opportunities. While adopting a global perspective towards manufacturing quality products, the department focuses on the following directions: rigorously controlling manufactured product quality to satisfy consumer demand, adopting advanced technologies to gain consumer confidence, emphasizing customer needs to ensure consumer expectations are satisfied and approaching management with a sense of community service.  Particularly, the Department emphasizes product quality by adopting the latest technological practices and stressing workplace safety.   Demonstrating its commitment to excellence, the department contributed crucially to the company receiving ISO 9000 and 9002 product certification.  Furthermore, the Department is striving to achieve compliance with ISO 14000 standards, something which requires a thorough understanding of design quality and quality control to maintain sound manufacturing practices. 


Exercise 599

Situation 5

Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Taiwan since 1982. Committed to providing advanced research capabilities and expertise in cancer therapy, the Cancer Center of National Taiwan University Hospital was established in 1999, and comprises a chemotherapy department, radiation therapy department,         nuclear medicine laboratory, clinical experiment laboratory, radiology biological laboratory, biological statistical laboratory, outpatient services for tumor victims, a chemotherapy treatment room, and a ward for tumor patients.  The Radiation Therapy Department is the heart of the Cancer Center and focuses on four treatment areas:  a state-of-the-art IMRT-linear accelerator, Co-60 therapeutic machinery, a computer tomography simulator and a block-making room.    While providing a diverse range of services for cancer patients, the Cancer Center provides a customized treatment strategy that incorporates the latest treatments in surgical oncology, radiation oncology and chemotherapy. The center has highly talented staff, including radiation oncologists, surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, diagnostic radiologists, operate advanced instrumentation such as a linear accelerator, CO-60 and CT, as well as medical physicists who plan therapy. These talented staff help the Cancer Center to achieve the following objectives: providing patient-focused healthcare to enhance patient quality of life, satisfying individual patient requirements and those of their relatives in a nurturing environment, fostering innovative research to prevent, detect and treat various cancers in their early stages, and training future cancer treatment experts and researchers.  Additionally, while conducting preliminary and clinical research, the Cancer Center nurtures professional talent in therapeutic, physiological and psychological aspects of cancer research. Moreover, nurses receive specialized training to care for radiation therapy patients, including help such patients cope with the discomfort caused by adverse skin effects and gland deficiencies.  The Cancer Center focuses particularly on breast, nasal and pharyngeal, and lung cancers. The center also provides brachytherapy for cervical, ovarian and bladder cancers. Notably, the enhanced form of brachytherapy offered at the center achieves 5-year survival in 95% of patients with superficial tumors. Besides providing state-of-the-art medical services for patients, the Center also offers support for patients and relatives coping with cancer therapy.  


Exercise 600

Situation 6

Established in 1967, the Radiology Technology Department at Cheng Hsin Medical Center has provided nearly five decades of service, and has trained many outstanding radiologists who are now spread throughout Taiwan. The Medical Imagery Department is divided into radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy sections, specializing in x-ray, CT and MRI examinations, respectively.  The radiology unit has state-of-the-art facilities and highly skilled personnel to provide prompt and efficient care. The radiology team continuously pursues advanced technology applications to offer continually improving therapeutic services. With its excellent specialists and facilities, the radiology unit has not only received accreditation from the Chinese Society of Radiology, but also operates a residential training program under the auspices of the Department of Health. The specialized equipment of the unit includes a high-tech magnetic resonance imaging system, rapid computerized tomography, a dual energy x-ray bone densitometer, mammography, high-resolution ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography.  Nuclear medicine provides imaging and functional evaluations for various body organs, as well as radioimmunoassay analysis, including nuclear cardiology and neuropsychiatry. A research project is currently underway on administering radioactive iodine 13 l to treat patients with thyroid disorders as a part of long-term follow-up therapy.  The radiotherapy unit is fitted with a double density linear accelerator for treating patients suffering from cancer, supported by a high precision radiographic simulator, for accurately detecting tumor size and location. Driven by a high-powered computer, the therapeutic planning system can determine accurate dosages for therapeutic purposes. This service prioritizes quality control in therapeutic planning.  As for future trends, the hospital is digitalizing all of its medical images, and the PACS system provided the entire hospital with an image transmissions system in June of this year.



Unit Six      Introducing a technology科技介紹


Exercise 601

Situation 1

China Motors Corporation (CMC) recently constructed a project documentation and version control (PDVC) system, thus increasing its productivity and enhancing its competitive edge in the domestic automotive sector.  Previously, new automobiles were spray painted on the factory floor, an inefficient and time consuming process.  The advanced PDVC system improves automation control technologies by foreseeing potential production bottlenecks. Whereas global automakers generally produce cars in large quantities, CMC produces a smaller quantity of more diverse products.  Demonstrating its success, the PDVC system has reduced personnel numbers on the factory floor from fifteen to six, while reducing wasted storage capacity from 68,071 to 55,031 units, saving CMC NT$ 2,000,000 over two years.  Catering to individualized consumer tastes requires the automobile industry to effectively manage manufacturing procedures to simultaneously optimize factory floor use and satisfy consumer demand.  The PCVC system helps to achieve this by arranging the simultaneous production of various models, striving to fill factory orders, and making on-line queries regarding how to increase upper and lower supply chain efficiency.  Such technological innovations will ultimately improve the global competitiveness of the Taiwanese automotive sector.  Technological developments in this sector focus mainly on flexibility in production scheme, online production and further integration of information technologies, and ultimately result in a fully automated and optimally managed factory floor.


Exercise 602

Situation 2

Elevated living standards and strong consumer demand in Taiwan have fueled technological advances in manufacturing liquid crystal displays.  Despite having successfully developed technology for producing medium and full sized liquid crystal color displays, AU Optronics Corporation has yet to develop the          equivalent technology for extremely large sized displays, primarily owing to the     prohibitive costs. Until the 1990s, liquid crystal displays could not simultaneously achieve a competitive price, large size and high quality. The main applications of liquid crystal displays are in notebooks and cellular phones. AU Optronics Corporation mainly produces large-sized panels for use in desktop monitors, notebook PCs, LCD TVs and other consumer appliances.  The company’s retail sales of such panels reached NT$14,596 million for March 2005, with shipments reaching 2.33 million pieces during the same month, increased 29.1% from the previous month. Further demonstrating the phenomenal growth of AU Optronics recently, shipments of small- and medium-sized panels increased by 23.4% to reach 3.39 million units during March 2005. With the merger of Acer Display Technology Corporation (a subsidiary of Acer) and Unipac Optoelectronics Corporation (a subsidiary of United Microelectronics Corporation) in 2001, AU Optronics obtained the most advanced TFT-LCD technologies and became known as a one-stop-shop capable of providing both large and small-medium applications. By the end of 2003, the operations of AUO were spread across China, Europe, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States, the company had over 20,000 employees, and    annual revenues had exceeded $US 3 billion. Notably, the ability of the corporation to integrate life sciences and medical technology has resulted in state-of-the-art photoelectronic laser technology applications. Given its technological capabilities, AU Optronics is forging ahead into OLED, LPTS, MVA and transflective technologies.  Product innovation has created added value and increased efficiency, leading to sustained growth in corporate profits and enhancing TFT-LCD performance, as demonstrated by the 656 local and international patents the company owns. The effective integration of multidisciplinary fields such as optoelectronics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and materials science will enable AU Optronics to continue to succeed.



Exercise 603

Situation 3

Liver cancer has ranked as a leading cause of mortality in Taiwan during the past decade because of Taiwan’s unusually high incidence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. Taiwan has over 10,000 fatalities annually from chronic liver hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer, and 80 to 90% of those affected carry the Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C viruses. Individuals with Hepatitis B have a 150 times greater likelihood of contracting liver cancer than those without the virus, explaining the high levels of hepatitis associated liver cancer among Taiwanese. Five major therapeutic methods are available for treating liver cancer:  surgery, including either therapeutic surgery or organ transplantation; blockage of blood flow, such as embolism of the liver artery; chemotherapy, including treatment for the entire body and interarterial injection; local injection, including injection of alcohol and glacial acetic acid; and temperature therapy, including microwave therapy, high temperature therapy and radiation therapy.  Radiation therapy is the most extensively adopted of these therapeutic methods.  Advances in digital technology have led to 3D computer-animated control stations being widely adopted to treat various cancers using radiation therapy. Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly during the past decade: from CO-60 to 3D conformal therapy.  Previously, surgery was the only therapeutic method of treating liver cancer. While the one-year survival rate following surgery can reach 80%, the five year survival rate is only 50%. Ultimately, survival rates depend on factors such as tumor position, size, degree of cirrhosis and meta situation. However, only 30% of liver cancer patients are suitable surgery candidates because hepatitis B and hepatitis C worsen the prognosis for cancer meta. Still, surgery is desirable for alleviating the adverse effects of irradiation and so enabling the radiation dose to be increased to 6600rad, thus achieving survival rates equaling those of conventional surgical therapy. Regular treatment is an essential part of liver cancer therapy, and patients must be treated twice daily. Such regular treatment can completely cure over 60% of sufferers. A novel therapeutic method, BID, attacks liver cancer cells with nearly        twice the intensity of conventional approaches. Patients treated with BID receive irradiation treatment in the morning to damage the DNA of cancer cells, and a subsequent treatment six to eight hours later further damages the DNA. BID is highly effective in terminating cancer cells but has certain limitations: the liver cancer must be smaller than 5 cm; cancer cells will still be present after surgery; and liver cancer tumors larger than 5-8 cm can not be treated. BID photon knife therapy has high efficacy and reduces damage to normal cells. Integrating BID with other therapeutic methods, including embolism, alcohol injection, surgery or chemotherapy, will ultimately reduce the incidence of liver cancer in Taiwan.


Exercise 604

Situation 4

Many obstacles exist to fully developing e-commerce in Taiwan.  Inefficient computerization adopted by many enterprises makes it impossible for enterprises to integrate their efforts with other manufacturers when complying with legal standards and attempting to better understand consumer behavior.  Local e-commerce also faces challenges in transaction and distribution.  For instance, ensuring network security for online purchases is a key concern.  Hackers remain a concern for consumers and enterprises, making customers hesitant to use credit cards online.  Technological constraints and cultural considerations mean that the e-commerce sector in Taiwan remains immature. Accelerated development of e-commerce depends on enterprises overcoming barriers and engaging in commercial activities as soon as possible, thus boosting global commerce.  Although barriers to market entry are relatively low, returns on investment are high, with potential profits being much higher than in traditional commerce.  Additionally, e-commerce can promote brand image in emerging markets.  Enterprises must learn to integrate Internet-based services through technical support, marketing strategies, market positioning and collaboration with partners.  The rise of Internet forces enterprises to adopt the above measures to ensure their survival.  As the Internet pervades daily life, the workplace and even global commerce, governments and enterprises worldwide must invest heavily in electronic commerce to increase national GDP and corporate competitiveness.  To remain abreast of global trends in e-commerce and protect the future the standing of Taiwan throughout the Asian-Pacific region, the Taiwanese government drafted and legislated an electronic commerce policy in 1998. 


Exercise 605

Situation 5

After commercializing the first cellular phone in 1970, ABC Corporation has become the largest global cellular phone manufacturer, diversifying from advanced manufacturing technologies into specialized design processes.  With an      annual output of 10,000,000 cellular phones, ABC Corporation generated revenues of US$ 1,500,000,000 last year. Manufacturing cellular phones involves integrating electronic equipment, silicon chips, chemical processes, gas water and electricity.  The complexity of cellular phones raises environmental protection, security and hygiene issues in manufacturing. To be a sustainable and environmentally responsible company, ABC Corporation has implemented the following measures:  maintaining environmentally safe manufacturing practices aimed at protecting employee health and security; strictly adhering to global safety and hygiene practices; educating employees on the importance of environmental protection, security and hygiene during manufacturing; recommending the adoption of novel environmentally friendly and efficient technologies; and extensively testing new materials to reduce risks.  Global enterprises must commit themselves to professional integrity and environmental consciousness. Environmentally sound manufacturing processes should aim to reduce employee error, conserve water and electricity and reduce pollutant emissions. Besides simply generating revenues, ABC Corporation must be a responsible community member by cultivating social consciousness, creating employment opportunities while operating in a sustainable manner, seeking to satisfy consumer demand with quality technological products that have low power consumption and comprehensive technical services.



Exercise 606

Situation 6

The Taiwanese Ministry of National Defense has made significant technological advances in manufacturing ground-to-air guided anti-missile systems. For instance, besides developing the Ray-Ting 2000 artillery multiple launch rocket system, the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology has designed and enhanced the following missile systems:  Shiung-Feng 1 and 2, and Ting-Kung 1 and 2.  Previously, Taiwan imported ground-to-air guided anti-missile systems from its diplomatic allies.  However, Chinese objections over Taiwanese defense purchases have forced Taiwan to develop its own ground-to-air guided anti-missile system. Shiung-Feng 1 and 2 are short and medium range missile systems that are highly accurate and reliable under adverse weather conditions. Fitted with a semi-active radar homing seeker, the Ting-Kung 1 missile is designed for medium range interception under an aerial saturation attack.  The Ting-Kung 2 missile has increased range and firepower by adopting an active radar homing seeker. Additionally, the Ray-Ting 2000, which is designed to repel an amphibious attack and provide superior firepower to conventional tube artillery, is equipped with a fully automatic fire control system, elevation and azimuth driven systems, as well as positional and direction determining systems. This system is considered one of the most powerful artillery multiple launch rocket systems worldwide. To         create a balance in the arms buildup involving Taiwan and China,             local arms manufacturers such as the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology must implement appropriate management strategies to increase their ability to supply domestic defense needs, thus alleviating over dependence on imported weapons.



Unit Seven    Introducing an industry工業介紹


Exercise 607

Situation 1

The Taiwanese animation sector is involved in animation films, cartoons, animation videos and Internet-based animation. Digitization, or placing animated objects in a digital context, has transformed the sector and increased productivity and innovativeness. Still, the animation sector faces many obstacles.  Overseas businesses continue to view Taiwanese animation firms as     original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), limiting their ability to build        brand recognition. Additionally, labor costs in China and India are significantly lower than in Taiwan. Moreover, Taiwanese animation companies lack animation designers with global marketing expertise.   Taiwanese animation companies also have difficulty in         securing bank loans or other financial support as      company startups, largely owing to their relative immaturity.  Despite these obstacles, the local animation sector is increasingly pivotal in the economic development of Taiwan, and several encouraging developments are underway. For example, the Ministry of Economic Affairs recently initiated a loan fund to develop digital content, which will benefit the animation sector. In addition to providing the animation sector a more solid economic foundation, this project will also encourage an influx of skilled technical and management personnel.   Additionally, the Taiwanese animation sector has adopted increasingly novel 3D techniques in cartoons, animation videos and Internet-based animation and animation films, for example Toy Story and SHREK.  Organizations in Taiwan committed to developing animation-related techniques can be categorized as either academic research centers or R&D departments in animation firms, with the former focused on developing 3D techniques and animation designs and the latter focused on business-related research and development tasks, such as enhancing process efficiency.  If the Taiwanese animation sector is to become globally competitive, it must move beyond the traditional OEM model and develop brand recognition.


Exercise 608

Situation 2

Taiwan officially became an aging society in 1997 according to the definition of the United Nations. To look after the welfare of the elderly, the government needs to provide affordable, basic housing that suits the needs of this growth sector. Local construction enterprises thus have begun promoting retirement housing complexes, which can be categorized into four types.  First, luxury accommodations are available for retirees, which have restrictions on tenant age and health status. Leased to tenants for long periods ranging from three to twenty years, such communities are normally referred to as congregate housing, and are characterized by uniform housing, organized social activities, health management, hotel type services, and specialist service staff.  Such housing arrangements offer a diverse array of services to high income elderly individuals.  Second, government-registered residential facilities are available for the elderly, which are subsidized by the government with elderly residents contributing the remainder themselves. Such facilities provide only basic daily services and so are relatively inexpensive.  Third, government-registered residential facilities are run in conjunction with private recuperative centers.  These facilities mainly house bed-ridden elderly, and are staffed by general nursing staff without specialized skills and who simply provide primary care.  Fourth, long-term residential care facilities are available for chronically ill elderly who are largely bed ridden. These facilities differ from long-term care facilities in hospitals in that they aim mainly to support the daily functions of the elderly, while hospitals focus on treating chronic illnesses. Notable examples of these facilities include residential facilities for retired serviceman that combine housing with recuperative facilities. What all of the above facilities share in common is that they are residential nursing homes staffed with professional nurses.



Exercise 609

Situation 3

Taiwan is a key global manufacturer of 3C and synthetic fiber products.  The current trend towards using nano-materials in fiber production creates enormous potential for further development of this industry. The numerous existing nano-material applications for locally produced 3C and synthetic fiber products include inorganic nano-recorder media, nano-interface handle for a separate membrane in batteries and electron passive element.  The ability to adopt advanced production technologies such as nano-materials is important to Taiwan’s continued economic growth. Taiwanese manufacturers must remain abreast of the latest applications of nano-elements and organisms, while also considering environmental sustainability and using energy efficiently for manufacturing purposes.  Since the Taiwanese economy has matured to the extent where labor and capital resources are already efficiently allocated for manufacturing, continued economic development depends on the ability to constantly adopt advanced manufacturing practices such as nano-materials technology. Accordingly, the Taiwanese government has offered numerous incentives for local companies to develop their research capabilities, and these incentives have seen Taiwan transform from an agricultural-based economy to a hi-tech one over just a few decades.  During the coming decade, Taiwan faces the following challenges in further developing its nano-materials technology sector: developing and synthesizing nano-materials efficiently, manipulating the properties of nano-materials to meet industrial specifications, and further understanding the properties of nano-materials and their implications for product commercialization. One particular concern is how to reduce the time between product development and commercialization.  Taiwan must effectively meet the above challenges to remain competitive in the fiercely competitive nanotechnology sector.



Exercise 610

Situation 4

The Taiwan Rail Administration (TRA) oversees conventional rail transportation in Taiwan. Since Liu Ming-Chuan directed the construction of the first rail line from Keelung to Taipei in 1886, rail has been important to long-distance transportation in Taiwan. In response to rapid population and economic growth, TRA completed the north-link line, the double link of the western line, the electrified project of the western line, the purchase of the push-pull Tzu-Chiang express train and, most significantly, the south-link line and the round island railway network. Recent passenger numbers have not justified the tremendous capital requirements of railway construction. Notably, completion of the Chung-shan and Formosa freeway projects encouraged individuals to drive cars or take passenger buses instead of riding the train, and many bus companies offer an attractive combination of luxurious seating and inexpensive off-peak ticket prices.  To encourage passengers to return to railway transportation, TRA has promoted the Taipei-Kaohsiung Tzu-Chiang express train (3 hours 59 minutes one way) and the Taipei-Hualien Chu-Kuang group express train. The Taiwan High Speed Railway (THSR) has been                      the most daunting undertaking of TRA to date. To realize the THSR, TRA is directing several construction projects, including commuter stations in San-Keng, Tai-Yuan, Da-Ching and Da-Chiao, as well as a metro hub linking Taipei and Hsinchu. To make the THSR competitive with other transportation modes, TRA needs to provide additional short-distance train lines, promote custom-designed train tourism packages, provide shuttle services linking THSR stations with downtown areas and expand train cargo capacity. Moreover, the Taiwan Department of Transportation should integrate the efforts of TRA and the THSR to provide a comprehensive, comfortable and convenient passenger service.


Exercise 611

Situation 5

During its occupation of Taiwan, Japan sought to cultivate local medical talent by discouraging its own physicians from practicing in Taiwan.  Moreover, the Japanese established a medical training institute in 1897 at a teaching hospital facility in Taipei, which in 1899 became a medical school with its own specialized departments of medical science. However, this facility catered mainly to Japanese governmental officials or the privileged gentry class in Taipei rather than catering to the general public. Later, teaching hospitals were established, which aimed to serve         local community needs. Eventually the Japanese Red Cross Society in Taiwan was established in 1904. Moreover, the Taipei University of the Japanese Prefecture set up a medical department in 1935, some years after the university’s original establishment in 1928.  After Chiang-Kai Shek and his Kuomingtang Government arrived in Taiwan in the wake of the civil war, problems such as inflationary prices and scarcity of medicine led to the emergence of unlicensed physicians and poor quality medicines. However, since 1965, medical practices and standards in Taiwan have gradually improved to reach the current situation where Taiwan provides state-of-the-art medical services.  Taiwanese hospitals are categorized either as medical centers (17), regional hospitals (70), community hospitals (375) or clinics (data unavailable). Since its establishment in 1995, the National Health Insurance scheme has sought to provide medical coverage for all Taiwanese residents under the auspices of the National Health Insurance Bureau. However, the National Health Insurance scheme suffers from a severe fiscal imbalance, causing near bankruptcy and other problems for medical facilities that rely on NHI subsidies.  Consequently, a large island-wide protest march of medical professionals was held this year.


Exercise 612

Situation 6

Substandard corporate performances have driven down the prices of many listed stocks in Taiwan, straining the Taiwanese financial sector by increasing loan default rates. To strengthen the financial sector, the Taiwanese government has initiated comprehensive reforms focused on market liberalization and institutional mergers. However, these well-intentioned policies have incurred further financial problems. For example, market liberalization policies have led to the emergence of large numbers of banks, saturating the market to the point where banking institutions suffer low profits and have difficulty differentiating themselves from competitors.   Additionally, institutional mergers failed to resolve basic financial problems. The merger policies were intended to strengthen poorly performing banks or credit cooperatives by merging them with more healthy financial institutions.  However, merged entities have suffered impaired corporate performance owing to defaulted loans and debts acquired during their mergers. With continued globalization, most notably in the form of WTO entry, the financial sector will undoubtedly face increased competition as overseas firms gain a foothold in the domestic market. Furthermore, given the financial problems associated with market liberalization and institutional merger policies, the Taiwanese government must closely re-examine the problems and implement responses to increase banking service quality and improve the competitiveness of domestic institutions.